National Repository of Grey Literature 112 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Financial Development and Wealth Inequality: A Panel Data Analysis
Mainka, Paul Kaspar ; Horváth, Roman (advisor) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
iv Abstract The understanding of the drivers of wealth inequality is still relatively limited, which is due to the hitherto rather scarce available data on wealth. In the wealth inequality theory, saving is a crucial determinant of wealth inequality, and therefore my thesis emphasizes saving, which I approximate by financial development. Through a relatively new wealth panel dataset, I dispose of data on the Gini coefficient of wealth for 129 countries over the period 2000 to 2018. I identify the likely most influential variables on wealth inequality from a broad pool of possible explanatory variables by employing lasso for fixed effects and subsequently quantify their effect through fixed effects modelling. I obtain robust results that globalisation and a business-friendly regulatory environment are associated with higher wealth inequality, while a higher labour force participation rate and stronger control of corruption are linked to lower inequality. Moreover, but slightly less robustly, I find that a greater depth of financial markets is associated with higher wealth inequality. Thus, I do not find clear empirical support for the prominent role of saving for wealth inequality which it is attributed in theory. Instead, non-financial variables appear to be more relevant. JEL Classification C33, E21, G51...
Three Essays on Financial Development
Mareš, Jan ; Horváth, Roman (advisor) ; Belke, Ansgar (referee) ; Čihák, Martin (referee) ; Geršl, Adam (referee)
The dissertation is a compilation of three empirical papers on the effects of financial development. In the first paper, we examine finance's effect on long-term economic growth using Bayesian model averaging to address model uncertainty. Our global sample findings indicate that the efficiency of financial intermediation is robustly related to long-term growth. The second and third papers investigate the determinants of wealth and income inequality, capturing various economic, financial, political, institutional, and geographical factors. We reveal that finance plays a considerable role in shaping both distributions.
Impact of Public Health-care Expenditure on economic growth
Nerva, Vijayshekhar ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
This thesis serves to investigate the varying effects of public health-care expenditure and private health-care expenditure on economic growth in developed and developing countries. I have contributed to the literature by using an expansive geographical dataset, lagged variables to address endogeneity, and model averaging techniques. I do so by first addressing the issue of model uncertainty, which is inherent in growth studies, by using Bayesian Model Averaging as the method of analysis in the thesis. Examination of 126 countries (32 developed and 94 developing) in the period 2000-2018 reveals that there is no variation in the impact of public health expenditure on economic growth between developed and developing countries. Contrary to public health expenditure, private health expenditure has a varying impact on both developed and developing countries. My analysis also reveals that the results hold when lagged variables are used in the model. Public health expenditure has unanimously a negative effect on economic growth in both developed and developing countries. Private health expenditure, on the other hand, has a positive impact on economic growth in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, I found that the results are robust to different model specifications. JEL Classification I15, O11,...
Monetary Policy Transmission - Bank Lending Channel and Banking Market Structure. The Case of Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Jvaridze, Tinatin ; Mareš, Jan (advisor) ; Komárek, Luboš (referee)
In the thesis, we examine the bank lending channel and the effect of banking market structure on the transmission of monetary policy in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. We employ bank-level data for the period of 2011-2017 to detect if banks with different characteristics react differently to monetary policy shocks. Banking market structure is proxied by three measures-CR5, HHI, and Lerner Index. We estimate two types of models: dynamic (with system GMM) and static (with FE) models. We also consider the effect of dollarization on bank loan supply as well as on monetary policy. We do not find consistent evidence that banks react differently to monetary policy shocks depending on bank characteristics (size, capitalization, and liquidity). Hence the existence of the lending channel is not conclusive. Nevertheless, the results show that monetary policy is less effective in more concentrated markets. This finding is robust in all specifications with both types of models. In this sense, competition is not significant. The results also suggest that dollarization weakens the effect of domestic monetary policy. Keywords bank lending channel, CR5, HHI, Lerner Index, system GMM, dollarization Author's e-mail t.jvarize@yahoo.com Supervisor's e-mail janxmares@gmail.com
Experimental Study of Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Different Conditions
Purkartová, Zdeňka ; Vožeh, František (advisor) ; Pokorný, Jaroslav (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANISMS OF NEURODEGENERATION IN DIFFERENT CONDITIONS - SUMMARY MUDr. Zdeňka Purkartová The cerebellum is an important structure involved in motor coordination and many other functions including cognitive and emotional processes. Severe cerebellar diseases include a wide group of cerebellar hereditary degenerations with different types of heredity, different pathogenesis and diverse phenotypic manifestation. Many types of mouse models can be used to investigate these diseases and their therapy. These mice carry spontaneous mutations or are genetically modified. The aim of this work was to analyse the dynamics of morphological changes of cerebellar degeneration in Lurcher mice using fluorescent double staining. We also performed transplantation of embryonic cerebellar tissue suspension in adult Lurcher B6CBA mice, B6.BR mice and wild-type mice of both strains with two-month survival after surgery and transplantation of identical suspension in adult Lurcher B6CBA mice and C3H mice and wild- type mice of both these strains with six-month survival after surgery. We have confirmed these main characteristics of the degenerating Purkinje cells in Lurcher mutants: the disrupted continuity of the Purkinje cell layer, the presence of dark spots in the cell nuclei, the fragmentation of nuclei...
Proteomics, Lymphocyte Population in Multiple Sclerosis and Disability
Pavelek, Zbyšek ; Vališ, Martin (advisor) ; Mareš, Jan (referee) ; Hradílek, Pavel (referee)
Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. Although research on the diagnosis and treatment of this serious illness has made significant advances, the MS etiology remains unknown. Although there is still much to be found in the MS pathogenetic mechanisms, understanding the mechanisms of immune-mediated damage to the central nervous system (CNS) components of MS allows not only the introduction of new drugs that positively modulate inflammatory inflammation but also the understanding of immune- mediated diseases affecting the CNS in a broader sense. Methods The Ph.D. thesis is a general introduction followed by an annotated set of author's publications on proteomics, lymphocytic population in MS and disability. Study 1: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome was conducted to find changes in the low molecular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) segment and to determine what native peptides and how much they are in cerebrospinal fluid among patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing-MS (RR MS) compared to a healthy population. Study 2: Lymphocytes in the treatment with interferon beta-1b targeted individual...
Synchronization of circadian clock in rat during ontogenesis and in adulthood
Olejníková, Lucie ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Šlamberová, Romana (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
The circadian system temporally controls behavioral and physiological processes in most organisms so that they change during the day and night with a period of about 24 h. It is an evolutionary adaptation to anticipate periodic changes in environment on the Earth. In mammals, the circadian system consists of the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of hypothalamus and of oscillators located in numerous peripheral organs and tissues. At the molecular level, the circadian clock is based on the rhythmic expression of so called clock genes. The ontogenetic development of the circadian system is a gradual process and the most important changes undergo during the late embryonic and early postnatal stage. Many behavioral, hormonal and metabolic signals provided by the mother are considered to be involved in circadian clock synchronization during early ontogenesis. The mechanisms of the entrainment are not fully known yet. The aim of this thesis was to study the development of the circadian clock and its entrainment via maternal signals and to compare the development of circadian rhythms in two model rat strains - Wistar rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Firstly, we described the ontogenetic maturation of the Wistar rat circadian clock in the colon from the fetal stage until...
Effective Tax Rates and Profit Shifting Around the World
Kraváček, Jan ; Janský, Petr (advisor) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
This thesis aims to analyze the scope of profit shifting by U.S. multinational corporations using effective tax rates as a metric. Alternatively, unlike other academic literature on the subject, this work complements the analysis by utilizing also statutory coporate tax rate. The main contribution of the thesis is an econometric analysis of the most recent data provided by Bur- eau of Economic Analysis. It is shown that the scope of profit shifting is rising with gross income sensitivity to effective tax rates clearly increasing in the time span from 1983 till 2015. According to the panel data from this time span, one percentage point increase in effective tax rate would decrease the reported gross income in a low tax jurisdiction by 2.4 percent. Interestingly, an analogous analysis using statutory tax rates does not yield any statistically significant effect. Moreover, results show that the richer the country is, the lower its effective tax rate and the higher its statutory rate. These results indicate that the two metrics can have different implications. Furthermore, if some version of profit apportionment formula was applied on the profit of U.S. multinationals, a significant profit redistribution would take place. Gross income would oftentimes be attributed to developing coun- tries with a large share of...
Effect of expectations on civil-war and its recurrence
Kořánová, Barbora ; Gregor, Martin (advisor) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
The goal of this thesis is to shed light on the efect of expectations on the civil war and its recurrence. We use a dataset that covers over 90 countries over the period of 1970-2014. First, we introduce proxy-variables of expectations about the future presence of civil war into an econometric model of occur- rence of civil conlict. Using the logistic regression, we ind that expectations have a signiicant inluence on the onset of civil conlict. Thereafter, we ex- amine the impact of these expectations in post-conlict situations, which is smaller but non-negligible. Subsequently, we compare the features of post- conlict countries, where civil war has repeated within 10 years and where it has not, via the Welch test. Finally, we describe conlict as a game with complete information and as a Bayesian game. In these we identify the role of expectations about opponent's action and the role of changes in payofs. JEL Classiication D74, C21, D84, C72 Keywords civil war, post-conlict, cross-section, noncoop- erative games, expectations Author's e-mail bara.koranova@seznam.cz Supervisor's e-mail gregor@fsv.cuni.cz

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See also: similar author names
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2 Mareš, J.
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