National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Calcium signalling in glial cells in progress of Alzheimer disease
Waloschková, Eliška ; Anděrová, Miroslava (advisor) ; Maršáková, Lenka (referee)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the entire central nervous system including glial cells. The mechanisms of this disease are not yet entirely clear, although recent studies suggest that among the known hallmarks of AD, such as accumulation of amyloid β and hyperphosphorylated tau, dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis is proposed to be a significant feature both in neurons and glial cells, namely astrocytes and microglia. Glial cells play an important role both in healthy brain and during AD progression. Their major functions, such as supporting neurons or maintaining synapses, are impaired during this disease. Recent findings suggest that aberrant glial calcium signaling activated during AD, could possibly promote the malfunction of these cells and increase their inflammatory response, thus affecting neurons and causing brain damage. It is likely, that the ongoing inflammation and the impaired calcium signaling affect one another, consequently enhancing the progression of AD.
Modulatory mechanisms of nociceptive TRP channels
Maršáková, Lenka ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
Detection of painful stimuli in the periphery is mediated by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels which are expressed in primary afferent endings of free sensory neurons called nociceptors. TRP channels in nociceptors are involved in the detection of thermal, but also mechanical and chemical stimuli. Out of seven known types of temperature-sensitive TRP channels, three are responsible for detecting painful temperatures: vanilloid receptors TRPV1 (> 42 o C) and TRPV2 (> 52 o C) detect noxious heat, and ankyrin receptor TRPA1 detects noxious cold (< 17 o C). Better knowledge of TRP channel mechanisms of action is essential for understanding TRP channel functions and ultimately for the design of potential analgesics. New findings presented in this thesis clarify mechanisms of action of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, focusing on camphor and voltage sensitivity of TRPV1 channels and calcium modulation of TRPA1 channels. The first topic discussed in this thesis is the mechanism of camphor sensitivity of TRPV1 receptor. Camphor is a naturally occurring substance known since time immemorial for its effective analgesic properties, yet its mechanism of action is not understood. Camphor is known to be a partial agonist of TRPV1 channel, a full agonist of TRPV3 channel, but also an inhibitor of...
Modulatory mechanisms of nociceptive TRP channels
Maršáková, Lenka
Detection of painful stimuli in the periphery is mediated by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels which are expressed in primary afferent endings of free sensory neurons called nociceptors. TRP channels in nociceptors are involved in the detection of thermal, but also mechanical and chemical stimuli. Out of seven known types of temperature-sensitive TRP channels, three are responsible for detecting painful temperatures: vanilloid receptors TRPV1 (> 42 o C) and TRPV2 (> 52 o C) detect noxious heat, and ankyrin receptor TRPA1 detects noxious cold (< 17 o C). Better knowledge of TRP channel mechanisms of action is essential for understanding TRP channel functions and ultimately for the design of potential analgesics. New findings presented in this thesis clarify mechanisms of action of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, focusing on camphor and voltage sensitivity of TRPV1 channels and calcium modulation of TRPA1 channels. The first topic discussed in this thesis is the mechanism of camphor sensitivity of TRPV1 receptor. Camphor is a naturally occurring substance known since time immemorial for its effective analgesic properties, yet its mechanism of action is not understood. Camphor is known to be a partial agonist of TRPV1 channel, a full agonist of TRPV3 channel, but also an inhibitor of...
Use of adrenergic receptor alpha2-agonists in pain treatment
Soláriková, Ivana ; Vaculín, Šimon (advisor) ; Maršáková, Lenka (referee)
α2-adrenergic receptor agonists are adjuvant analgesics involved in the modulation and treatment of pain acting in the noradrenergic system. Binding of α2 agonists to receptors initiates a cascade of actions leading i.a. to antinociception. The most clinically applied analgesics of this type include clonidine, dexmedetomidine, and xylazine used in veterinary medicine. The ability to potentiate the effects of opioid and nonopioid analgesics and anesthetics leading to dose reduction is especially advantageous as it relieves unpleasant side effects associated with opioid use, and reduces the risk of tolerance development. They are effective in local anesthesia due to the peripheral site of action and do not cause characteristic, centrally mediated side effects of hemodynamic character. They are involved in the suppression of inflammatory response in the body by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Despite the wide range of action, α2 agonists appear to be safe in many different contraindications, such as sepsis, diabetes or pregnancy. Keywords: α2-adrenergic receptors, agonists, pain, analgesia, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, potentiation, adjuvant

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2 MARŠÁKOVÁ, Lucie
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