National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Vliv fiskální politiky na příjmovou nerovnost ve vybraných zemích Latinské Ameriky
Urbanová, Anna ; Maialeh, Robin (advisor) ; Slaný, Martin (referee)
The region of Latin America remains the most unequal in the world, despite the downward trend of last years. The negative socioeconomic impact of high income inequality has been examined and proved by many studies. The difference between inequality rates in Latin America and more equalitarian countries is much bigger when regarding income after taxes and transfers, which follows that the source of persisting high rates of unequal income distribution might be found in ineffective fiscal policy. This thesis examines the assumed impact of implemented fiscal policy on level of income inequality for four Latin American countries (Mexico, Brazil, Chile and Colombia). In the theoretical part, theoretical background for income inequality and fiscal policy is covered. The practical part includes analysis of development of income inequality, public expenditures and tax revenues in these countries from 1992 to 2012. Subsequently, regression model proves a significant negative impact of public health expenditures on income inequality in case of Mexico, Brazil and Chile. Public spending on education is found effective in reduction of income inequality in Brazil, however in case of Chile an increase in public spending on education seems to increase unequal distribution of income among households. Main finding of this thesis is that when efficiently targeted, fiscal policies aimed at increasing expenditure on health and education systems are likely to serve as effective measures of reduction of unequal income distribution.
Critical Theory and Dialectics of Contemporary Economics
Maialeh, Robin ; Chytil, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Pavlík, Ján (referee) ; Valenčík, Radim (referee) ; Yagan, Danny (referee)
The subject of this dissertation thesis is a confrontation of contemporary economic thought with critical theory. Based on the holistic critique of the production process, the author deals with elementary principles of wealth creation and allocation, mirroring themselves in the issue of economic inequality. An applied transdisciplinary approach leads to dialectical understanding of market mechanism which accentuates an antagonistic character of its actors´ aims and reveals its non-empirical causalities. These abstract connections then become a viable explanatory complement to already advanced empirical apparatus of economic inequality. The goal of the thesis is to formulate an economic model that takes into consideration both empirical findings of contemporary studies on economic inequality and reflection of the critical theory. The value added lies in the fact that the economic model presents an interaction of economic agents and through probabilistic drive towards deepening economic inequalities exposes market mechanism as the diverging factor of social reproduction. Further, the model shows that Pareto-optimization, a frequently used analytically-normative tool of contemporary economics, principally does not suffice in grasping market-based inequalities. The contribution of the thesis is researching particular economic phenomena from the unique perspective which has not been yet fully accomplished in the context of modern economics.
Immigration and prices in Lebanon
Štursa, Mojmír ; Maialeh, Robin (advisor) ; Potužák, Pavel (referee)
This thesis examines the behavior of prices following the unexpected arrival of a large number of immigrants from Syria to Lebanon between 2012 and 2014. Using Lachs model with monthly data about prices, number of immigrants and natives, the total effect of immigration on lebanese prices was estimated. The final estimation that a one-percentage-point increase in the ratio of immigrants to natives decreases prices in Lebanon by 0,21 percentage-point, is consistent with introduced hypothesis and theory. It is argued that the reason for decrease are mainly lower immigrants wages which derive from their lower qualification.
The impact of pension payments abolition and subsequent effect on economic growth in the Czech Republic
Srnka, Jan ; Rybáček, Miroslav (advisor) ; Maialeh, Robin (referee)
The thesis focuses on the impact of pension payments abolition and subsequent effect on economic growth in the Czech Republic. From a demographic perspective, the population in our country is regressive and there is a rise number of elderly compared to number of younger group. Index of economic dependence and Sauvy index will be increasing. The state will carry a inceasing burden of pension payments and the budget will further suffer by this. Should a cancellation of pensions happen, it would lead to a reduction in savings, a grow in investments and thus leading to economic growth. Overall prosperity would apparently grow. Finacial problems in lower income groups, who would be impacted the most, would occur.
Economic aspects of the global population development in the eyes of proponents and critics of TR Malthus
Zelinka, Jan ; Štekláč, Jiří (advisor) ; Maialeh, Robin (referee)
Discussions regarding resources depletion and populations are currently at the forefront of society. Against each other are standing groups of supporters and groups of critics of Thomas Malthus. The objective of this thesis is economic analysis of threats and benefits of the current population development with regard to theories of both groups. To the solution is used statistical data of the World Bank, through which it assesses the situation in selected countries and in the world. Nowadays dominates critic's opinions rather, which are pointing to the improving condition of the planet. Population growth has slowed down in recent years and the population is close to its peak, which would open possibilities for increasing human capital, which is the most important resource that we have. Ensuring the growth of human capital has the potential to provide solving future problems related to the lack of existing natural resources.
Transformation options for the current Czech pension system, emphasizing the problem of re-distribution rates and long-term sustainability
Fialka, Martin ; Prachař, Ondřej (advisor) ; Maialeh, Robin (referee)
This thesis describes anticipated development of the Czech pension system and the impact of population ageing on future pension benefits. The theoretical part describes the characteristics of the basic pension system models and the current pension system in the Czech Republic. It factors in the current political situation, current policies and debated changes. Using this data, the practical part estimates the future amount of pensioners in upcoming decades. The research results show that the number of pensioners in future decades will be significantly growing. The replacement ratio for future pensioners is decreasing and the average amount of money that Czech citizens are saving up in the III. pillar is insufficient to keep the ratio stable without taking additional measures.

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