National Repository of Grey Literature 91 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Gender Gap in Productivity Across Science Disciplines
Danylenko, Alona ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Münich, Daniel (referee)
Persistent gaps in publication productivity between men and women have been widely studied in social and economic literature since 1984, when Cole and Zuckerman referred to this discrepancy as a 'puzzle'. Existing studies on differences in publication productivity between men and women have considered different determinants of the gender gap, which partly, but not fully, explained the "gender puzzle". My study differs from the existing literature in terms of the coverage of the data used and the key questions asked: 1) what factors contribute to the gender gap in pub- lication productivity between male and female scientists? 2) what institutional factors facilitate productivity of female scientists? 3) how does the size of gender gap vary across disciplines? 4) which workplaces hire more women over time? The results of my research suggest that: 1) the size of gender gap is one-third less wide when field of specialization is controlled for; 2) women gain advantages in terms of higher productivity at larger workplaces, which cannot be explained by more stringent selection; 3) the smallest gender gap is observed in typically 'feminine' fields, such as Sociology, Medicine, and Education, while the largest gap is observed in Physics and Mathematics; 4) there is a path dependence in new female hirings, in...
Economics of Skill Formation
Supik, Lukáš ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Zacchia, Paolo (referee)
vii Abstract People are by nature social beings. Most of us have a complex social network that connects us with other people in numerous aspects of our lives: neighbours, co-workers or peers in schools, and friends. Moreover, it is widely believed that people's behaviour is to some extent affected by others in their social networks, which is known as peer effects. Therefore, a precise understanding of the behaviour of an individual necessarily includes understanding her interactions with others within her social network. The first part of this thesis, literature review, summarizes contemporary research on peer effects, shows which aspects of human behaviour may be affected by social interactions, and highlights the importance of peer effects research. In the second part, the estimation of the linear- in-means peer effects model, we provide a detailed description of the model, derivations of its alternative formulations, and show the identification conditions. The main contribution of the second part is that we provide a step-by-step analysis of the linear-in-means peer effects model and detailed proofs of theorems in one place. The third part provides an empirical analysis of peer effects in education in the Czech Republic. In particular, we examine how the test scores of pupils are affected by their...
Working from home: the possibility or necessity?
Grossmann, Jakub ; Korbel, Václav ; Münich, Daniel
The study describes the use of work from home across socio-demographic groups in the Czech Republic during the coronavirus year 2020. It shows how work-from-home arrangements relate to workers' characteristics, such as their education, industry, gender, and type of household. The analysis reveals the perceived barriers to and benefits of working from home.
The gap of in-person teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic: estimation of invisible economic losses
Jann, Ole ; Münich, Daniel ; Zapletalová, Lucie
Studies of the impact of school closures and school absences as well as impact studies already carried out abroad into the Covid-19 pandemic period all show, that the gap in in-person teaching caused by the pandemic will have a substantial negative impact on pupils' educational outcomes and will increase educational inequalities. The loss of learning will very likely lower the future earnings of current pupils and students for decades of their productive life.
Social status in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the Czech Republic over the past 15 years, and an international comparison
Korbel, Václav ; Münich, Daniel
The Czech Republic (CZ) has an historically strong system of vocational education and training (VET), which around 30% of first-year high school (HS) students enter each year. How many students should enter VET has often been debated. However, which students select into VET and how their composition has changed over time has been less examined. This study maps these phenomena by measuring the social status linked to VET programs in the Czech Republic since 2003. Based on previous literature, we define social status as the relative difference in PISA scores of first-year VET students compared to first year students at other types of high schools. The social status thus reflects which students chose VET, and is the sum of various factors that influenced their choice – the expected quality of education, employment prospects after graduation, and the perception and opinions of parents and primary school classmates. If the relative PISA scores of VET students decreased in comparison to those of students who entered other types of high schools from one PISA wave to another, we can interpret this as a decrease in the social status of VET students.
The impact evaluation of alternatives suggestions for the abolition of super-gross salary
Kalíšková, Klára ; Münich, Daniel ; Prokop, D. ; Šoltés, Michal
This paper is a reaction to the public debate about the abolition of the concept of super-gross salary in the Czech income tax system. The paper evaluates the impact of four alternatives of the income tax system, which were suggested by the government, the parliament, the Pirate Party and the think-tank IDEA. The analysis is concentrated on the impact that these alternative tax reforms would have on the state budget and the income of employees at different income levels.
The impact of the super-gross salary abolition on the income tax paid by employees
Kalíšková, Klára ; Münich, Daniel ; Šoltés, Michal
This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of the proposed abolition of the super-gross salary concept in the Czech Republic. It shows that the suggested reform would cause an annual drop in the state budget income in the amount of CZK 80 billion per year. Almost a quarter of this drop would benefit the highest income decile of employees while the income tax of employees in the lowest decile would decrease by a maximum of CZK 100 per year.
Helping companies to maintain employment: fast, simple, economically meaningful (short recommendation)
Münich, Daniel
This recommendation describes the basic characteristics of deferring the due date for payment of employers’ social security and health insurance contributions from their employees’ salaries, as one of a range of necessary measures that the Czech government should bring into force as quickly as possible in order to reduce the negative economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic on companies, employees and residents and to shorten\nthe domestic economy’s future period of consolidation. The measure is in line with the recommendations in the study IDEA anti COVID-19 #2 study, which emphasises the significance of bringing in measures quickly and targeting them at the survival of wellestablished economic structures during the most difficult period.
Pre-school abilities: European comparative study
Neufussová, Monika ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Federičová, Miroslava (referee)
Pre-school education improves cognitive and non-cognitive skills of children, and the positive effects persist to adulthood. The literature provides rich ev- idence of beneficial effects of pre-school, some of them even causal. However, most studies come from the US, and the research lacks a comprehensive pic- ture of European countries concerning pre-school education. I contribute to the research by providing a comparison of European countries regarding pre- school attendance, pre-school skills, and test scores in fourth grade. In Section ??, I focus on the Czech Republic. The results show that more educated moth- ers are more likely to send children to pre-school. In most countries, children with stronger pre-school skills achieve higher results on standardized tests in fourth grade, which supports the idea of the existence of the Matthew effect. In the Czech Republic, pre-school attendance may increase fourth-grade test scores by 0.3 SD. The most important pre-school skill is the ability to read, which is associated with an increase in fourth-grade math achievement of 0.2 SD. The results contribute to the literature on pre-school education in Eu- rope; however, they should not be interpreted causally, as they are essentially a description of the pre-school context in Europe. 1
The high costs of low literacy in the Czech Republic
Krajčová, Jana ; Münich, Daniel
By means of projections, we quantify the hypothetical impact of providing better education to insufficiently literate fifteen-year-old pupils on the Czech economy’s long-term growth in the coming decades, using a number of scenarios. Our projections are not predictions of future trends, but represent hypothetical projections of future trajectories based on what is currently known about the causal relationships between educational achievements and economic growth. Insufficiently literate fifteen-year-olds – those who do not achieve score enough in functional literacy tests – face substantial economic and social difficulties later in life. Across the OECD countries, 24% of pupils fall into this category. In the Czech Republic the proportion is slightly lower (21%), and this represents some 20 thousand pupils in an age cohort. Only a negligible share of these pupils attend four-year or extended gymnazia (academic upper-secondary schools). These pupils represent about a third in elementary schools, while they represent almost half of vocational / apprenticeship secondary schools (without the Maturita / Abitur school-leaving exam). School closures during the covid-19 era will likely increase unequal access to quality education and thus the proportion of under-literate pupils.

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