National Repository of Grey Literature 79 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Teaching quality, education, economic growth and prosperity in the Czech Republic
Münich, Daniel ; Krajčová, Jana ; Protivínský, T.
This study reports in detail on how Czech society will suffer financially in the future if it is unable, or unwilling, to invest greater resources and systemic efforts into improving teaching quality. Our simulated estimates demonstrate that the financial impact of foregoing potential improvement would be huge. The paradox of this high level of unrealized societal gain can be explained in various ways. Either Czech society is still insufficiently aware of the extent of the societal advantages that they forgo by failing to improve teaching quality, or a substantial part of the society is currently failing to consider the long-term impact. It may also be that the Czech political-educational system is currently unable to translate a realization of the extent of this loss into concrete measures and investments.
The school homework load in the Czech Republic and in international comparison
Korbel, Václav ; Münich, Daniel
This study does not aspire to detect any causal effects of HW on pupils’ school outcomes nor any other desirable or adverse aspects of HW. Nevertheless, we show that the estimated (non-causal) relationship between HW load and pupils’ results is substantially different depending on whether we look at differences between countries, between schools or within schools. We thus illustrate that simplified or even ignorant presumptions about these relationships may lead to mistaken conclusions, for example that greater HW loads causally worsen pupils’ results, which it might be tempting to assume on the basis of international comparisons. This study’s findings reveal that Czech pupils have a very low HW load in comparison to pupils from other countries. This does not, however, automatically mean that Czech teachers should start to give their pupils more HW. First of all, there is no evidence, even from other countries, that greater HW loads automatically improve learning outcomes. Second, debates about HW load tend to disregard other key questions related to the amount of HW suitable in the local educational context. While providing answers to these questions is beyond the scope of this current study, these should be the subject of further research and expert debate. Good teachers should, furthermore, be capable of assessing the suitability or otherwise of setting HW in their particular local and educational contexts.
Three Essays on Unethical Behavior
Korbel, Václav ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Glätzle-Rürtzler, Daniela (referee) ; Ibañez-Diaz, Marcela (referee) ; Münich, Daniel (referee)
This dissertation consists of three essays that explore how unethical behavior develops in adolescence. All three essays use a methodology of lab-in-the-field experiment, but each investigates questions related to unethical behavior from a different perspective. The research presented in this thesis focuses on unethical behavior in two populations: the general population of adolescents and juvenile delinquents. Combining findings from the general and problematic population of adolescents helps us to understand what factors contribute to delinquency and more importantly, what factors may attenuate it. In the first essay, we investigate whether adolescents cheat more when making a decision in groups compared to deciding as individuals and whether the process of group formation matters. The results show that, in general, groups cheat more but the results are driven primarily by younger adolescents while there is no difference between individuals and groups among older adolescents. Interestingly, the process how groups are formed does not play a role. This suggests that tendencies to cheat develop still in the adolescence and that the context in which decision is made, is important. The second essay studies how willingness to obey rules differs between juvenile delinquents and adolescents from the...
Czech teachers’ intellectual skills in international and generational comparison
Münich, Daniel ; Krajčová, Jana
This study reveals the levels achieved in and differences between general intellectual skills achieved by national populations as a whole and those achieved by teachers. Specifically it presents (a) an international comparison of older and younger adult populations and (b) a comparison of younger and older generations of teachers. Our comparison does not limit itself to presenting mean test score values, but also reveals the extent of heterogeneity in skills among the relevant populations of each country. We also offer a detailed overview of the issue of selection into the teaching profession, from both international and intergenerational perspectives.
Higher teachers’ salaries: promises, promises, promises
Münich, Daniel ; Smolka, V.
International comparisons show that Czech teachers’ pay, in relation to other tertiary educated workers, has long been among the lowest across the most economically developed countries. Based on the latest international comparisons published, from 2015, Czech teachers earned 56% of what other tertiary educated workers were earning, whereas the average across OECD countries was 83%.
What’s behind the grades on Czech school certificates?
Münich, Daniel ; Protivínský, T.
Girls in the ninth year of elementary school receive better grades in mathematics and Czech language than boys. In anonymously graded tests, however, girls only achieve better results in Czech language, while in mathematics the boys outperform them on average by roughly the same margin. Meanwhile, the variation in test results within each gender is far greater than the average differences between boys' and girls' results. Gender differences in academic results measured through tests are, in the literature, more often seen to reflect different influences in upbringing and social environments, rather than reflecting different innate dispositions among girls and boys. When writing non-anonymous school reports for mathematics, teachers give girls better grades than reflect their actual results in anonymously assessed tests. On their reports, girls are given grades for mathematics that are on average better by 0.6 grade than their male peers who achieved the same anonymous test score. The gender differences we have found in academic results and grading are in line with the findings of most foreign studies. Our analysis shows that the differences between boys' and girls' grades is not a result of differences in the way stress affects test results, nor a difference in pupils' liking for or aversion to the subject in question. The likely cause of the difference in grades between girls and boys is that the grades are influenced by the pupils' socio-emotional skills. Grades on school reports constitute an established means of feedback about each pupil's educational achievements and form one basis upon which aspirations and decisions regarding further study are taken. Biased grades and the incorrect interpretation they may lead to could affect the young people's further academic trajectory in undesirable ways. Our findings raise a number of questions about suitable changes in how grades are given. One of the many possible changes to be considered is to allocate pupils grades on two separate scales, one of which would reflect only the academic results they have achieved and the second only their attitude to learning, without reference to their objective levelof achievement.
IDEA for the 2017 elections. Teachers’ salaries in election manifestos: an overview and breakdown
Münich, Daniel
This study maps and examines the extent to which the election manifestos of the prominent political entities (hereafter referred to as parties) running for election to the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Parliament provide answers to seven questions related to teachers’ pay and working conditions.
IDEA for the 2017 elections. Teachers´ low salaries: a very expensive saving
Münich, Daniel
Czech teachers' average salaries at primary school level are the lowest in relation to the average salaries of other university-educated employees not only across the EU but also among OECD countries. In the Czech Republic teacher's pay comes in at 56% whereas the average across the EU and OECD is around 86%. Using alternative indicators of teachers' pay does nothing to change the Czechs' dismal international position.
Women and men in Czech R & D: publication performance, productivity and co-authorship
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Kozubek, Stanislav ; Münich, Daniel ; Škoda, Samuel
This study offers the first systematic comparison of scientific publication performance of men and women in the Czech Republic. We analyze the period 2009 – 2013 and focus on publication output of Czech scientists in journals indexed in the Web of Science database in 11 broad field groups. In addition to the quantity of publications, we assess the quality of published articles using journal bibliometric indicators as a proxy for article quality.
Essays on Early Tracking School System
Federičová, Miroslava ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Rivkin, Steven (referee) ; Falch, Torberg (referee)
Essays on the Effects of Early School Tracking Miroslava Federičová Dissertation Abstract This dissertation studies the transition process of the early-tracking school system that usually occurs at the age of 10, and focuses on its effects on student academic achievement. Moreover, as this early selection occurs at the time of changes in brain development that is different for boys and girls, all chapters also examine the topics from the perspective of gender. Chapter 1 is focused on the selection process itself and studies the role of grades in explaining the gender difference in application rates to selective schools. This selection is provided mostly according to cognitive skills that are signalled to pupils in the form of grades. Although grades play a very important role in the application process, conditional on cognitive skills, grades differ substantially between girls and boys. In this chapter, I propose the model of asymmetric signal of the probability of admission for girls and boys arising from grades. Data about transition from primary to selective schools in the Czech Republic shows that girls apply at significantly higher rates. I find that this difference also remains the same after controlling for probability of admission. Furthermore, test scores collected by an international testing...

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26 Münich, Daniel
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