National Repository of Grey Literature 82 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Transmission of very slow electrons as a diagnostic tool
Frank, Luděk ; Nebesářová, Jana ; Vancová, Marie ; Paták, Aleš ; Mikmeková, Eliška ; Müllerová, Ilona
The penetration of electrons through solids is retarded by sequences of their interactions with the matter in which the electron changes its direction of motion and loses its energy. Inelastic collisions, the intensity of which reaches a maximum at around 50 electronvolts (eV) and drops steeply on both sides of this fuzzy threshold, are decisive for the penetration of electrons. Transmission microscopy (TEM or STEM) observes thin samples of tens to hundreds of nanometres in thickness by passing electrons of energies of tens to hundreds of kiloelectronvolts through them. The range below 50 eV has recently been utilized in the examination of surfaces with reflected electrons, where high image resolution is achieved thanks to the retardation of electrons close to the sample surface in the ´cathode lens´ . In this lens, the role of the cathode is played by the sample itself, biased to a high negative potential. This principle can also be utilized in the transmission mode with samples of a thickness at and below 10 nm. This method has recently been implemented and verified on graphene samples prepared by various methods. The results have made it possible to diagnose the continuity and quality of the graphene flakes. Furthermore, series of experiments have been performed involving the observation of ultrathin tissue sections with electrons decelerated to about 500 eV and less, where they provide an image contrast of the cell ultrastructure much higher than that provided by traditional microscopic modes.
Sixty years of the Institute os Scientific Instruments
Müllerová, Ilona
The Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI) was established in 1957 as an institution providing instrumental equipment for other institutes of the Academy of Sciences, mainly in the field of electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and coherent optics. Three examples are shown in Figure 1. In the beginning the institute had only 83 employees, including the workshop which produced the electronics and all mechanical parts of the instruments. During the process of post-Communist transformation of the Academy of Sciences, which began in 1989, the development of entire instruments and devices was brought to a halt and scientific activities of our Institute focused on the methodology of probing the physical properties of matter in the above-mentioned main fields. New components of scientific instruments were developed that help push the limits of what hadpreviously been possible, continuing the long tradition of the Institute in these topics.
Creation of electron vortex beams using the holographic reconstruction method in a scanning electron microscope
Řiháček, Tomáš ; Horák, M. ; Schachinger, T. ; Matějka, Milan ; Mika, Filip ; Müllerová, Ilona
Electron vortex beams (EVB) were theoretically predicted in 2007 and first experimentally\ncreated in 2010. Although they attracted attention of many researchers, their\ninvestigation takes place almost solely in connection with transmission electron microscopes (TEM). On the other hand, although scanning electron microscopes (SEM) may provide some advantages for EVB applications, only little attention has been dedicated to them. Therefore, the aim of this work is to create electron vortices in SEM at energies of several keV.
STEM modes in SEM
Konvalina, Ivo ; Paták, Aleš ; Mikmeková, Eliška ; Mika, Filip ; Müllerová, Ilona
The segmented semiconductor STEM detector in the Magellan 400 FEG SEM microscope\n(https://www.fei.com/) is used to detect transmitted electrons (TEs) and allows observing\nsamples in four imaging modes. Two modes of objective lens, namely high resolution (HR)\nand ultra-high resolution (UHR), differ by their resolution and by the presence or absence of\na magnetic field around the sample. If the beam deceleration (BD) mode is chosen, then\nan electrostatic field around the sample is added and two further microscope modes HR + BD\nand UHR + BD, become available. Trajectories of TEs are studied with regard to their angular\nand energy distribution in each mode in this work.\n
Very low energy electron transmission spectromicroscopy
Daniel, Benjamin ; Radlička, Tomáš ; Piňos, Jakub ; Mikmeková, Šárka ; Konvalina, Ivo ; Frank, Luděk ; Müllerová, Ilona
For more than 25 years, Scanning Low Energy Electron Microscopy (SLEEM) has been\ndeveloped at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI), with several commercially available SEMs adapted with a cathode lens for SLEEM use, as well as a dedicated self-built UHVSLEEM setup.\nFor a better understanding of contrast formation at low energies, especially at very low energies below 50 eV, where the local density of states plays an important role, more general knowledge about the interaction of (very) low energy electrons with solids is required. This will be achieved using a newly developed ultra-high vacuum (UHV SLEEM) setup which includes several enhancements compared to other available machines. Data processing is presented in, and processed data will be further used and tested with the Monte Carlosimulation package BRUCE, which is being developed by Werner et al. at TU Vienna.
Public awareness about AIDS
Müllerová, Ilona ; Vinopal, Jiří (advisor) ; Kyselá, Eva (referee)
The aim of this study is to assess the status of HIV positive people in society. To reach the goal and for introducing a whole continuation of HIV positive status will be used interpretation and analysis of research from the very first to the very latest. Research that will appear in the work, are aimed at knowledge and attitudes towards HIV-positive people. In order to capture the continuation of knowledge and attitudes to HIV / AIDS at the time, researches are presented chronologically, and the last one is my own survey. The sense of this study is to pay attention to the problem of stigma and discrimination against people with HIV. HIV / AIDS issue is a complex problem that affects a wide range of scientific disciplines, so the study includes apart from sociological discourses topics of medicine, law and psychology. Key words: HIV, AIDS, homosexuality, drug use, prevention, stigmatization
Difraction in a scanning electron microscopie
Řiháček, Tomáš ; Mika, Filip ; Matějka, Milan ; Krátký, Stanislav ; Müllerová, Ilona
Manipulation with the primary beam phase in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) or a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has drawn significant attention in the microscopy community in the recent years. Although a few applications were found long before, some are still subjects of a future research. One of them is the use of electron vortex beams, which has very promising potential. It ranges from probing magnetic materials and manipulating with nanoparticles to spin polarization of a beam in an electron microscope.\nThe methods for producing electron vortex beams have undergone a lot of development in recent years as well. The most versatile way is holographic reconstruction using computer-generated holograms modifying either phase or amplitude. As the method is\nbased on diffraction, beam coherence is a very important parameter here. It is usually performed in TEM at energies of about 100 – 300 keV which are well suited for diffraction on artificial structures for two reasons. The coherence of the primary beam is often reasonable, and the diffraction pattern is easily observed. This is however not the case for a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM) with typical energy up to 30 keV.
Scanning transmission microscopy at very low energies
Müllerová, Ilona ; Mikmeková, Eliška ; Konvalina, Ivo ; Frank, Luděk
To operate down to units of eV with a small primary spot size, a cathode lens with a biased specimen was introduced into the SEM. The reflected signal, accelerated secondary and backscattered electrons, is collected by detectors situated above the specimen.\nWhen we insert a detector below the specimen, the transmitted electron signal can also be used for imaging down to zero energy. Fig. 1 also shows an example of the simulated signal trajectories of electrons that impact on the detector of reflected electrons, based on an Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG) crystal, and trajectories of electrons transmitted through the specimen and incident on a semiconductor detector based on the PIN structure.
Bandpass filter for secondary electrons in SEM - experiments
Mika, Filip ; Konvalina, Ivo ; Krátký, Stanislav ; Müllerová, Ilona
Bandpass energy filtering using a through-the-lens secondary electron (TLD) detector in a field emission gun SEM (FEG-SEM) has been known over a decade. During energy filtering, image contrast is changed and new information about the material can be observed. Our motivation for this study was to compare theoretical calculations with the experimental data\nof the SE bandpass energy filter in Magellan 400 FEG SEM. The TLD detector works as a bandpass energy filter for the special setup of electrode potentials inside the objective lens, with the positive potential on the specimen regulating the energy window.
Bandpass filter for secondary electrons in SEM - simulations
Konvalina, Ivo ; Mika, Filip ; Krátký, Stanislav ; Müllerová, Ilona
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is commonly equipped with a through-the-lens secondary electron detector (TLD). The TLD detector in Magellan 400 FEG SEM works as a bandpass filter for the special setup of potentials of electrodes inside the objective lens, the positive potential on the specimen regulates the energy window of the filter. An energy filtered image contains additional information to that of an unfiltered one. The contrast of the filtered image is changed and new information about the topography and the material can be observed.\nTo understand image contrast formation with TLD detector we traced SEs and BSEs through the three-dimensional (3D) model of included 3D distribution of the electrostatic and magnetic fields. The properties of the bandpass filter were simulated for a working distance (WD) in the range of 1 mm to 3 mm and a primary beam energy (EP) from 1 keV to 10 keV.\nThe 3D electrostatic field of the system was calculated by Simion, magnetic field and raytracing were done using EOD program.

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