National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Role of phospholipases A2 in the mechanism of cardioprotection induced by adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Míčová, Petra
Cardiovascular diseases, particularly acute myocardial infarction, are the leading causes of death in developed countries including the Czech Republic. One of the ways to increase cardiac resistance against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is adaptation to chronic hypoxia. However, changes at the molecular level associated with this adaptation have still not been fully explored. It is obvious that the myocardial function depends on maintaining membrane integrity and cellular homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. From this perspective, phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are the key enzymes that take part in the remodeling and repairing of the cell membranes. Moreover, PLA2 are also involved in generation of lipid signaling molecules - free long chain fatty acids (FA) and 2-lysophopholipids. In myocardium, members of three major PLA2 classes are present: cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) and secretoric PLA2 (sPLA2). This thesis aimed to determine the following in the left ventricular myocardium of adult male Wistar rats: 1) The effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH; 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, 5 weeks, ~ 7000 m) on the expression of total cPLA2α and its phosphorylated form (p-cPLA2α, Ser505 ), and further iPLA2 and sPLA2IIA, as well as signaling proteins activating cPLA2α enzyme...
Role of phospholipases A2 in the mechanism of cardioprotection induced by adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Míčová, Petra ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Kuda, Ondřej (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases, particularly acute myocardial infarction, are the leading causes of death in developed countries including the Czech Republic. One of the ways to increase cardiac resistance against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is adaptation to chronic hypoxia. However, changes at the molecular level associated with this adaptation have still not been fully explored. It is obvious that the myocardial function depends on maintaining membrane integrity and cellular homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. From this perspective, phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are the key enzymes that take part in the remodeling and repairing of the cell membranes. Moreover, PLA2 are also involved in generation of lipid signaling molecules - free long chain fatty acids (FA) and 2-lysophopholipids. In myocardium, members of three major PLA2 classes are present: cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) and secretoric PLA2 (sPLA2). This thesis aimed to determine the following in the left ventricular myocardium of adult male Wistar rats: 1) The effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH; 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, 5 weeks, ~ 7000 m) on the expression of total cPLA2α and its phosphorylated form (p-cPLA2α, Ser505 ), and further iPLA2 and sPLA2IIA, as well as signaling proteins activating cPLA2α enzyme...
System of oxidative phosphorylation and methods for its functional analysis
Daňhelovská, Tereza ; Tesařová, Markéta (advisor) ; Míčová, Petra (referee)
The system of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is main and essential source of energy (ATP) in eukaryotic cells. It is complex process situated in the inner mitochondrial membrane in which 4 enzymes of the respiratory chain, 2 mobile carriers and the ATP synthase participate. Defect in any part of OXPHOS may lead to the mitochondrial disorders. An incidency of the mitochondrial disorders is estimated to be 1:5000 and mitochondrial disorders are the most common inherent metabolic diseases. Clinically, it is extremely heterogeneous group of disorders affecting primarily tissue with high energy demand, for example brain, hearth and muscle. With regard to broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and relatively poor genotype-phenotype correlation of mitochondrial genetic defects, it is preferred to perform complete laboratory diagnostic tests including several biochemical and molecular genetic approaches. This bachelor thesis summarizes actual information about mechanism of OXPHOS and describes three major approaches to detect its functionality. Three major approaches are: spectrophotometric measurement of individual OXPHOS enzyme activities, measuring capacity of the mitochondrial energy generating system using various radioactive labeled substrates and measuring of oxygen consumption by polarography. To...
Functional morphology of myocardium
Vebr, Pavel ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Míčová, Petra (referee)
The thesis is a literary review summarizing current knowledge about the ultrastructure of myocardium in the overall context of the development and anatomy of the heart. The first part of the study is a summary of heart anatomy and its embryonic development, with emphasis on the morphology of cardiomyocytes. The state of inner cytoarchitecture of myocardial cells and the quality of inter-cellular connection reflects the functionality of the heart. Location and condition of cell compartments reflect the overall condition of the cell. The following part is devoted to the basic microscopic analysis methods suitable for research ultrastructure of cardiac cells. The outcome of this work is a comprehensive overview of the organization of remarkable morphological formations in cardiomyocyte, possible changes in ultrastructure in context of physiological conditions and comparison of microscopic methods with regard to their use in research of cardiomyocytes ultrastructure. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Myocardial phospholipases A2 and oxidative stress
Závišková, Kristýna ; Míčová, Petra (advisor) ; Chytilová, Anna (referee)
Heart and vascular diseases, in which oxidative stress plays an important role, are the most frequent cause of death in developed countries. Therefore today's researches focus on clarifying signaling pathway and their components that operates in these processes. One of the possible key factors can be phospholipases A2. These enzymes hydrolyze unsaturated fatty acids from C2 position on phospholipids, which easily subject to the oxidative modification due to their double bonds. There are five groups: the secreted, the cytosolic, the calcium independent, the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases and the lysosomal phospholipases A2. They differ in the requirement for calcium ions for its activity, molecular weight, position of disulfide bonds and amino acids sequences in the active site. Their main importance is to keep the stability and integrity of cell membranes and produce lipid signaling molecules (free fatty acids, lysophospholipids, eicosanoids). The phospholipases A2 play a dual role during oxidative stress in myocardium. First, they have a positive effect by protecting membranes against oxidative stress due to their higher affinity for removal of peroxidized fatty acids from membrane phospholipids. On the other hand, the phospholipases A2 can also cause destructive effects during...
Cardioprotective effects of exercise training
Zajíčková, Pavlína ; Neckář, Jan (advisor) ; Míčová, Petra (referee)
Ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury is one of the main causes of death as a result of cardiovascular disease. Creation of a programme aimed at prevention attracts attention because number of patients suffering from this disease is increasing. One possibility is a regular physical activity whose positive effect on ischemic myocardium has been confirmed by empirical evidence. On the other hand we still do not know what activities are the most suitable and which intensity is the best for our health. Mechanisms which are created by regular exercise and contribute to heart protection have not been fully identified yet. The objective of this paper is to discover potential mechanisms and describe their role in protecting our heart. Moreover, it deals with possible ways of training which could activate such mechanisms and thus reduce significantly the risk of myocardial injury.
Nanofibrous materials in bone tissue engineering
Zajdlová, Martina ; Bačáková, Lucie (advisor) ; Míčová, Petra (referee)
This thesis focuses on nanofibrous materials which are highly promising regarding they application in a modern interdisciplinary scientific field - tissue engineering. Through the years there have been developed various strategies for creating materials usable in tissue engineering. The earliest materials that were made did not allow any cell adhesion on their surfaces (so-called "bioinert" materials), whereas nowadays there is an effort to create hybrid bioartificial organs. Especially in bone tissue engineering do polymeric materials in the form of a nanofibrous network, such as polylactide or polycaprolactone with the addition of inorganic particles (for example nanocrystalic hydroxyapatite), show great potential. Such materials mimic the natural bone tissue and stimulate the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells into desirable a cell type. In the experimental part of this thesis one of these promising nanomaterials was tested for its biocompatibility in vitro. Polylactide in the form of nanofibrous networks with 0, 5 and 15 % of nanocrystallic hydroxyapatite was provided by Elmarco s.r.o, Liberec. Human osteoblast-like cells MG 63 were cultivated on these materials for 1, 3 and 7 days. The results show the convenience of hydroxyapatite particles which stimulate the cells to the...

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