National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Local Self-Defence Militias as Counterinsurgents: The Possibility, Willingness and Rationality of Selective Violence against Insurgents
Gilg, Jakob Julian ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
Local Self-Defence Militias as Counterinsurgents The Possibility, Willingness and Rationality of Selective Violence against Insurgents Autor: Jakob J. Gilg Submitted: 31.07.2019 Abstract How do local self-defence militias (LSDMs) influence violence against civilians in civil conflicts? Compared to other types of pro-government militias (PGMs), LSDMs are active in their home area. This results in abundant local information that can be used to identify and target insurgents and their supporters selectively. Furthermore, LSDMs are part of the local community, resulting in strong social ties, making indiscriminate violence against the community less likely. Finally, since LSDMs are dependent on popular support and cannot move on to a new area after violent acts, they are incentivised to retain local support by abstaining from civilian targeting. Therefore, I hypothesise that LSDMs are more likely to employ selective violence, and that their deployment decreases civilian fatalities in civil conflicts. To empirically test this claim in a global sample, I use 1) a logistic regression to assess the likelihood of selective violence of PGMs (H1), and 2) a negative binomial regression to evaluate the expected number of civilians killed by the government (H2). The results for the first hypothesis suggest an increased...
The Implications of the Collapse of the Caliphate for Southeast Asia
Clancy, Jean-Patrick Christian James ; Aslan, Emil (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
Following the announcement of the establishment of a Caliphate in 2014, individuals and groups from all corners of the world pledged their allegiance to the Islamic State. Of particular interest to this study are violent terrorist groups based in Southeast Asia. The thesis focuses on this region as, despite obvious geographical constraints, local bay'ah pledges have allowed ISIS to suddenly emerge in the region with a large and well organised force allowing for an increase in terrorist activities and ultimately the capture of Marawi, the largest city to fall under the ISIS banner outside of Syria and Iraq. But a question remains too often unanswered - why do terrorist groups ally? While the dynamic is rare and paradoxical due to groups' illicit and clandestine nature, strategic alliances between terrorist groups are far from being a new phenomenon. While a handful of scholars dared to explore this complex field, it remains under-theorised to this day. This thesis uses an available list of studies and analyses on terrorist alliances and complements it with theories related to alliances between states in order to understand the rationale behind Southeast Asian Islamists alliance with ISIS. While there lacks a consensus as to why groups ally, the study finds it to be a multi-dimensional and mutually...
Saudi-Iranian rivalry through cooperation with non-state actors: Balance of power theory and alliance-making in changing Middle East dynamics
Zrůst, Tomáš ; Daniel, Jan (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
This diploma thesis is focusing on applying balance of power theory on case of regional competition in the Middle East between Saudi Arabia and Iran and its reflection in three particular proxy conflicts - Syrian civil war, conflict over influence in Lebanese political system and conflict over stability of Bahraini regime. Assumptions about decreasing relevance of the theoretical background in more complex contemporary settings are challenged by concentrating on evolution of the theory and mainly role of non-state actors in these conflicts and balancing. The primary aim is to challenge the originally strictly state-centric theory, indicate ways to broaden its applicability and make contribution to the discipline by evaluating overall role of non-state in balancing and balance of power theory in general. The thesis firstly examines each case study separately, with focus on perception of threat and balancing behaviour of both regional powers and perspective of ties with respective non-state actors, such as Hezbollah, Shia majority in Bahrain and opposition in Syria, including their position and influence in the conflict, in context of regional competition and balancing in general. The work then uses a comparative approach with emphasis on contrast of context to identify key findings, which helps to...
Child Soldiers: Recruitment and Abuse of Children in Armed Conflicts
Karásková, Karolina ; Makariusová, Radana (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The main aim of this Master's thesis is to analyse how children are recruited and abused as soldiers in armed conflicts, and how international humanitarian law protects their rights. The thesis is divided in two main parts, theoretical and empirical. In theoretical part are introduced the most important documents of international humanitarian law and international human rights law, including international governmental and non-governmental organizations which promote these rights. In empirical part, the author focuses on case studies, namely the case of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the case of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The author was not interested in finding similarities in these two cases, but conversely, to point out on the uniqueness of each case. To precise, the thesis is analysing reasons for the recruitment and abuse of children by the LRA and ISIS, and the legal responsibility of both groups. The author of this thesis chose as a methodology an instrumental case study which is useful for providing a general understanding of a phenomenon by using a particular case. In addition, this methodology is convenient for interpretation of legal documents, and two selected cases serve as instruments for interpreting the recruitment and abuse of children in armed conflicts. The...
Media Campaign of Salafi Militant Organizations: The Case of Al-Shabaab and Daesh
Zděblová, Petra ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Daniel, Jan (referee)
The master thesis is focused on media campaign of Salafi militant organizations. These organizations organize their own campaigns to promote their objectives and formulate their own opinions, which they often spread through the Internet. This medium allows the organizations to fully customize their campaign's content, because it is not censored. The 21st century information environment has contributed significantly to making Salafi militant organizations international actors that should be taken into account. In addition, they are able to publish the content of their ideas in different languages while spreading them through several media to reach the widest possible audience. The main purpose of this diploma thesis is to determine whether the objectives of the organizations are reflected in their English-written magazines, namely Gaidi Mtaani and Dabiq, published by Al-Shabaab and Daesh respectively. The objectives of both organizations are divided into four categories, specifically, strategic religious objectives, strategic political objectives, fundamental objectives and intermediated objectives. Since the two organizations are dissimilar and their objections are distinct and therefore incomparable, each organization and its magazine are analyzed separately. The thesis does not seek to generalize...
Fragmentation of Kurdish Identity? The Case of Syrian Kurds
Skladanová, Nikola ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Aslan, Emil (referee)
The discussion on the Kurdish question has often connected the Kurdish struggle to the idea of an independent Kurdish state. While there are significant external factors that inhibit the possibility of establishment of a common (pan)Kurdish political project, within this thesis I focus on the internal inhibitors - specifically, on intra-Kurdish fragmentation, with a focus on the case of the Syrian Kurds. The work presents three main aspects of Kurdish fragmentation - political, territorial, and cultural/linguistic. This fragmentation, as presented in the thesis, is a product of competing identities, interests, and future goals of various Kurdish actors. The purpose of the thesis is to offer a detailed and comprehensive analysis of disunity and existing cleavages within the Syrian Kurdish national movement. The thesis asserts that Kurdish in- fighting, rivalries, and competing parochial interests present a significant obstacle to the creation of a (pan)Kurdish national movement and, therefore, also to the goal of the establishment of an independent Kurdish political entity.
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...
Methods of Recruitment and Propaganda Activities Carried Out by Terrorist Groups Inspired by the Ideology of Salafi Jihadism
Kubrina, Ekaterina ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The diploma thesis is focused on the issue of radicalization of young people, who join terrorist organizations inspired by the ideology of Salafi Jihadism. Terrorist groups are one of the greatest global threats of the 21st century, and the recruitment of new fighters is their basic factor of success and growth. Therefore, the aim of the thesis is to compare the methods and techniques of recruitment used by Salafi Jihadist groups and to identify successful strategies of terrorist groups, leading to the radicalization of certain populations. The work deals with two concrete terrorist groups - the "Islamic State" and Al-Qaeda, because these groups operate globally, have sympathizers around the world, and attract different people to join them. The basis of the research is an application of different radicalization models that have been developed up to now on the observed methods and strategies of terrorist recruiters. The result of this research is a revealing of the most used methods of recruitment, the reasons of successful recruitment cases and a summarizing of the qualities of potential recruits and the factors facilitating radicalization of these persons.
Securitization of the Veteran Effect of Foreign Fighters from ISIS in Europe
Pěčková, Miroslava ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The aim of this Master's thesis is to examine the securitization discourse used to construct the security threat coming from the veteran effect of the Islamic State's foreign fighters in Europe, and to see what kind of policies were adopted to counter it so far. The phenomenon of departing European citizens, who are becoming foreign fighters in the Syrian conflict, joining the ranks of the Islamic State, and then return back to their country of origin after having acquired combat experience or other training, has become a hot topic of discussion not only for academics, but also for politicians and ordinary citizens. To precise, this thesis is working with three main case studies, whose securitization discourse and security policies are analysed. These are: European Union, United Kingdom and France. The author was interested in finding out what similarities and differences can be found between the analysed countries, plus, whether there is some pattern of influence between the European Union and its member states in this area. The author of this thesis chose to use a comparative case study as a research design. It is useful to realize a contrast of contexts and therefore to discover specifics of the analysed cases. Two tables were created in order to clarify the operationalization of the analysed...

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