National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Child Soldiers: Recruitment and Abuse of Children in Armed Conflicts
Karásková, Karolina ; Makariusová, Radana (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The main aim of this Master's thesis is to analyse how children are recruited and abused as soldiers in armed conflicts, and how international humanitarian law protects their rights. The thesis is divided in two main parts, theoretical and empirical. In theoretical part are introduced the most important documents of international humanitarian law and international human rights law, including international governmental and non-governmental organizations which promote these rights. In empirical part, the author focuses on case studies, namely the case of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the case of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The author was not interested in finding similarities in these two cases, but conversely, to point out on the uniqueness of each case. To precise, the thesis is analysing reasons for the recruitment and abuse of children by the LRA and ISIS, and the legal responsibility of both groups. The author of this thesis chose as a methodology an instrumental case study which is useful for providing a general understanding of a phenomenon by using a particular case. In addition, this methodology is convenient for interpretation of legal documents, and two selected cases serve as instruments for interpreting the recruitment and abuse of children in armed conflicts. The...
Media Campaign of Salafi Militant Organizations: The Case of Al-Shabaab and Daesh
Zděblová, Petra ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Daniel, Jan (referee)
The master thesis is focused on media campaign of Salafi militant organizations. These organizations organize their own campaigns to promote their objectives and formulate their own opinions, which they often spread through the Internet. This medium allows the organizations to fully customize their campaign's content, because it is not censored. The 21st century information environment has contributed significantly to making Salafi militant organizations international actors that should be taken into account. In addition, they are able to publish the content of their ideas in different languages while spreading them through several media to reach the widest possible audience. The main purpose of this diploma thesis is to determine whether the objectives of the organizations are reflected in their English-written magazines, namely Gaidi Mtaani and Dabiq, published by Al-Shabaab and Daesh respectively. The objectives of both organizations are divided into four categories, specifically, strategic religious objectives, strategic political objectives, fundamental objectives and intermediated objectives. Since the two organizations are dissimilar and their objections are distinct and therefore incomparable, each organization and its magazine are analyzed separately. The thesis does not seek to generalize...
Fragmentation of Kurdish Identity? The Case of Syrian Kurds
Skladanová, Nikola ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Aslan, Emil (referee)
The discussion on the Kurdish question has often connected the Kurdish struggle to the idea of an independent Kurdish state. While there are significant external factors that inhibit the possibility of establishment of a common (pan)Kurdish political project, within this thesis I focus on the internal inhibitors - specifically, on intra-Kurdish fragmentation, with a focus on the case of the Syrian Kurds. The work presents three main aspects of Kurdish fragmentation - political, territorial, and cultural/linguistic. This fragmentation, as presented in the thesis, is a product of competing identities, interests, and future goals of various Kurdish actors. The purpose of the thesis is to offer a detailed and comprehensive analysis of disunity and existing cleavages within the Syrian Kurdish national movement. The thesis asserts that Kurdish in- fighting, rivalries, and competing parochial interests present a significant obstacle to the creation of a (pan)Kurdish national movement and, therefore, also to the goal of the establishment of an independent Kurdish political entity.
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...
Control of territory as a factor for the effective implementation of a political objective of an Islamist violent non-state actor
Ludvík, Zdeněk ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bureš, Oldřich (referee) ; Eichler, Jan (referee)
This thesis wants to make clear the theoretical concept in the form of a testable hypothesis on the relationship between the political control of the territory by a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and the effectiveness of realization of its political objective (policies). Since in the literature there is no explicit theory or theorization that would reflect the varying degree of effectiveness with regard to the varying degree of territorial penetration, and there are no explicit parametric indicators and values that may be necessary for effective achievement of the political objective in relation to the territory, the purpose of the research will be to answer the question whether, how and to what extent the intensity of the physical penetration of the territory is related to the ability to more easily and efficiently achieve the goals for which the VNSA has been established and has strived. A general definition of threshold values of the penetration can also provide partial piece of knowledge for practical policies and approaches to territorial VNSA on the part of states (counterinsurgency actors). Although there is no explicit use of any of the theories of international relations in the research, the used theoretical framework is inspired by a) approaches to political geography and outlines of...
Methods of Recruitment and Propaganda Activities Carried Out by Terrorist Groups Inspired by the Ideology of Salafi Jihadism
Kubrina, Ekaterina ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The diploma thesis is focused on the issue of radicalization of young people, who join terrorist organizations inspired by the ideology of Salafi Jihadism. Terrorist groups are one of the greatest global threats of the 21st century, and the recruitment of new fighters is their basic factor of success and growth. Therefore, the aim of the thesis is to compare the methods and techniques of recruitment used by Salafi Jihadist groups and to identify successful strategies of terrorist groups, leading to the radicalization of certain populations. The work deals with two concrete terrorist groups - the "Islamic State" and Al-Qaeda, because these groups operate globally, have sympathizers around the world, and attract different people to join them. The basis of the research is an application of different radicalization models that have been developed up to now on the observed methods and strategies of terrorist recruiters. The result of this research is a revealing of the most used methods of recruitment, the reasons of successful recruitment cases and a summarizing of the qualities of potential recruits and the factors facilitating radicalization of these persons.
Securitization of the Veteran Effect of Foreign Fighters from ISIS in Europe
Pěčková, Miroslava ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The aim of this Master's thesis is to examine the securitization discourse used to construct the security threat coming from the veteran effect of the Islamic State's foreign fighters in Europe, and to see what kind of policies were adopted to counter it so far. The phenomenon of departing European citizens, who are becoming foreign fighters in the Syrian conflict, joining the ranks of the Islamic State, and then return back to their country of origin after having acquired combat experience or other training, has become a hot topic of discussion not only for academics, but also for politicians and ordinary citizens. To precise, this thesis is working with three main case studies, whose securitization discourse and security policies are analysed. These are: European Union, United Kingdom and France. The author was interested in finding out what similarities and differences can be found between the analysed countries, plus, whether there is some pattern of influence between the European Union and its member states in this area. The author of this thesis chose to use a comparative case study as a research design. It is useful to realize a contrast of contexts and therefore to discover specifics of the analysed cases. Two tables were created in order to clarify the operationalization of the analysed...
The Role of Institutions in Non-State Armed Groups' Governance: The Case of EPLF
Procházková, Michaela ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with one of the aspects of armed groups' governance, namely the institutions that are created or used by armed groups and the role these institutions play in the military-civilian relations. The case study chosen is the Eritrean People's Liberation Front. This armed group was formed in 1973 in the context of the struggle for Eritrea's independence, and in the next decades it created a management system that included taxation, political committees, education, health care, and dispute settlement mechanisms. After the establishment of independent Eritrea in 1993, ELOF evolved into the People's Front for Democracy and Justice, which still remains a ruling Eritrean political party. The primary aim of the thesis is to answer the question of the role played by institutions created by non-state armed groups in building their relations with the civilian population. He is also marginally devoted to the development of Eritrea after independence.
The Caliphate on the Halt: Explaining the Stalling Campaign of the Islamic State in Libya
Lovecký, Tomáš ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
This diploma thesis examines the prospects of the Islamic State's expansion to Libya. Using the method of process tracing, the author assesses the campaign of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq and establishes 6 factors he calls ‚enablers' that played key roles in facilitating its success - the ideology, exploitation of state breakdown and governance, funding, combat know-how, propaganda, and sectarianism. He dedicates special attention to the problematics of sectarianism and the way the Islamic State made instrumental use of it in both of these countries. The author then proceeds to assess the viability of the IS enterprise in Libya, examining whether the conditions and circumstances in the country are conducive for an IS unsurgency. He identifies 8 structural conditions that underpinned the relevant enablers in Syria and assesses their relevance in Libya. Comparison of the two cases shows that except for sectarianism all the structural conditions are relevantly present in Libya which, according to J. S. Mill's method of a difference of J. S. Mill's method of a difference, should explain the stalling campaign of IS in Libya. The author proceeds to confirm this hypothesis by assessing the actual campaign of the Islamic State in Libya. He contends the Islamic State tried to follow the successful...

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