National Repository of Grey Literature 60 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiome and the influence of probiotics on its restoration
Hloucalová, Nikola ; Lichá, Irena (advisor) ; Ulrych, Aleš (referee)
Antibiotics are used for treatment of bacterial infections. They negatively affect not only the pathogens, but also other microorganisms in the gut, including the beneficial bacteria. Antibiotic treatment changes the proportion of good versus bad bacteria in the gut, causes a decrease in the number of commensal bacteria and leads to the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. We should consume probiotics during and after the antibiotic treatment, otherwise it results in an unhealthy stool and moreover it affects the immune system which then leads to physical and mental illnesses. This thesis summarizes the influence of probiotics on human gut during dysbiosis caused mainly by antibiotics.
The cell wall biosynthesis in gram-positive bacteria and inhibitory effect of antibiotics.
Mašková, Kateřina ; Ulrych, Aleš (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee)
The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria includes, in addition to the core peptidoglycan molecule, unique polysaccharides such as teichoic acids, capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides, and covalently bound surface proteins. Together, they create a strong and durable layer that provides protection but also communication with the external environment. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria can be divided into three phases: cytoplasmic, membrane and extracytoplasmic phase. The individual phases consist of specific reactions that are catalyzed by often conserved bacterial enzymes, which are potential targets for antibiotic molecules. Most known antibiotics effective against Gram-positive bacteria are aimed at inhibiting the process of cell wall synthesis. The mechanisms of action of individual antibiotics are described with varying degrees of detail. Some are known and widely used in medicine or veterinary practice, and some have so far only shown the potential to become drugs. Another use of antibiotics is in the basic research itself, especially in the study of cell wall biosynthesis and bacterial division. In this work, I have compiled a summary of knowledge about cell wall biosynthesis of Gram-positive bacteria and a list of antibiotics and a description of the mechanisms of...
Analysis of signaling cascade of protein kinase StkP in Streptococcus pneumoniae
Holečková, Nela ; Doubravová, Linda (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee) ; Petříčková, Kateřina (referee)
Analysis of signaling cascade of protein kinase StkP in Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is not only an important human pathogen but also an appropriate model organism to investigate cell division in ovoid bacteria. This bacterium lacks both, NO and Min systems for selection of cell division site. Thus, the mechanism which determines the site of cell division is unknown. Additionally, the genome of S. pneumoniae encodes a single gene for eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase StkP and a single gene for eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein phosphatase of PP2C type called PhpP. StkP is one of the main regulators of cell division. Cell division is probably affected by the phosphorylation of its substrates, which include, among others, cell division proteins FtsZ, FtsA, DivIVA, MacP, Jag/KhpB/EloR, and LocZ/MapZ. The aim of the first project of this dissertation thesis is determination of the function of protein LocZ in the cell division. In summary, locZ is not essential, however, it is involved in proper septum placement in S. pneumoniae and our data suggest that it is a positive regulator of Z-ring placement. Cells lacking LocZ are able to form Z-ring, but the Z-ring is spatially misplaced resulting in cell division defects, shape deformation, and generation of unequally sized,...
Metabolic control of the cell cycle in bacteria
Valtová, Aneta ; Lichá, Irena (advisor) ; Fišer, Radovan (referee)
Metabolic control of cell cycle has been studied for a long time in bacteria, but it is not still fully elucitated. The mechanisms described for several decades have been described in more detail and find new connections between basic metabolism and the cell division process itself. Cell cycle regulation, depending on metabolism and nutritional conditions, takes place over all steps of the cycle. The most mechanisms are studied at the level of bacterial division formation. Nutritional deprivation induces stress responses that use low-molecular substances which are involved in signaling pathways and which regulate the cell cycle. One of the most studying is the molecule of guanosine (penta)tetraphosphate (p)ppGpp, which affects cell cycle at the level of genes expression, at the level of proteins involved in the process of creating divisome, even at the level of replication. Recent research revealed that some enzymes with their already known enzymatic function in major metabolic pathways (glycolysis and TCA), also have a function as sensors that transmit a signal about the nutritional change directly to the division apparatus of the cell. These enzymes regulate the formation of the Z ring through the protein FtsZ or its auxiliary proteins most often and have been found in Gram-positive (Bacillus...
Applications of flow cytometry in the study of microbial subpopulations.
Hřebíček, Ondřej ; Lichá, Irena (advisor) ; Sudzinová, Petra (referee)
This work reviews common flow cytometric methods and applications for the study of bacterial organisms. Flow cytometry is fluorescent method capable of both quantitative and qualitative analysis at the single cell level. It can offer insights about bacterial population dynamics, phenotypic heterogeneity and more. This work features a basic introduction to flow cytometry and presents some of the commonly measured variables, such as viability or membrane potential with an emphasis on the fluorescent probes used to visualize them. The difficulties of adapting flow cytometry to bacterial physiology are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the particular probes and methods. Finally, this work seeks to demonstrate the flexibility as well as the shortcomings of flow cytometry using examples of practical applications in basic research, environmental microbiology, biotechnology, clinical practice. Keywords: flow cytometry, microbial subpopulations, fluorescent labelling, bacterial physiology, bacterial viability
Mutant glycosidases with a high substrate specificity and their analysis
Nekvasilová, Pavlína ; Bojarová, Pavla (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee)
β-N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC, GH 20) are retaining exo-glycosidases that in vivo cleavage both β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or β-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues fom glycostructures. Under suitable reaction conditions, these enzymes are able to synthesize the glycosidic bond in good yields. Substitution of selected amino acid(s) in the emzyme active site by site-directed mutagenesis may change the enzyme's substrate specificity or suppress the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme in favor of synthesis. The present thesis deals with three mutant β-N-acetylhexosaminidases from Talaromyces flavus, in which the amino acid residues responsible for binding to C-4 hydroxyl of the substrate (Arg218, Glu546) were exchanged for amino acids proposed on the basis of molecular modeling. The effect of introduced single point mutations on substrate specificity of prepared enzymes was studied. Mutant β-N-acetylhexosaminidases were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Furthermore, transglycosylation reactions with these enzymes were performed. The prepared carbohydrate products were characterized by NMR.
Changes in the ability to form persisters in chronological isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
Kotková, Hana ; Lichá, Irena (advisor) ; Tkadlec, Jan (referee)
In immunodeficient patients, for example with cystic fibrosis (CF), the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes chronic infections of respiratory tract that are treated with antibiotics (ATB) in the long term. However, exposure to antibiotics can lead to persistence, thereby result a recurrence of infection. The aim of this work was to examine in selected pairs of S. aureus chronological isolates from the respiratory tract of CF patients how their ability to form persisters is changing in time. I have found that the ability to persist within the clonal pair does not change significantly after two years of survival in the host, and that the ability to persist depends on the adaptative mutations of the isolates. Persister formation may depend on mutations in operon of the alternative sigma B factor (sigB) and the major virulence gene regulator (agr). By dual staining with DioC2(3) and To-pro-3, I was able to determine the changes in membrane potential and membrane permeability during the killing curve with ATBs. The distribution into subpopulations according to these parameters depends primarily on the antibiotic used. I conclude that various antibiotics can induce different mechanisms causing a persistent state. Futhermore, I have constructed plasmids with a labeled promoter to determine...
Factors interacting with bacterial RNA polymerase and their effect on the regulation of transcription initiation
Ramaniuk, Volha ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
(ENGLISH) The bacterial cell needs to regulate its gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions. RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the pivotal enzyme of this process and its activity is controlled by a number of auxiliary factors. Here I focus on RNAP-associating factors involved in regulation of transcription in G+ bacteria:  factors, initiating nucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs), HelD, δ and small RNA Ms1. The main emphasis is on σ factors from Bacillus subtilis. σ factors allow RNAP to specifically recognize promoter DNA. In my first project I set up in vitro transcription systems with purified alternative σ factors, σB , σD , σH , σI from B. subtilis. Using these systems, I studied the effect of initiating NTP concentration ([iNTP]) on transcription initiation. I showed that promoters of alternative  factors are often regulated by [iNTP]. In the next project I comprehensively characterized one of the least explored alternative  factors from B. subtilis, I . I identified ~130 genes affected by I , though only 16 of them were directly affected. Moreover, I discovered that I is involved in iron metabolism. Finally, I showed that I binding requires not only the conserved -35 and -10 hexamers, but also extended -35 and -10 elements located in the spacer region. In collaboration with...
Subcellular localization of resistant proteins Vga(A)LC and Msr(A) using fluorescence microscopy
Nguyen Thi Ngoc, Bich ; Balíková Novotná, Gabriela (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee)
Vga(A)LC and Msr(A) are clinically significant resistant proteins in staphylococci that confer resistance to translational inhibitors. They belong to ARE ABC-F protein subfamily, which is part of ABC transporters. Unlike typical ABC transporters, ABC-F proteins do not have transmembrane domains that are responsible for the transport of substances through the membrane. Therefore, they do not have characteristic transport function but regulatory or resistance function. Their mechanism of action on the ribosome has been described only recently, where these proteins displace the antibiotic from the ribosome. However, some aspects of their function are still unclear. For example, what is the function of the Vga(A) location on a membrane that has been detected in the membrane fraction but not in the ribosomal. In this work, using fluorescence microscopy, I observed subcellular localization of the Vga(A)LC-mEos2, Vga(A)LC-GFP and Msr(A)-eqFP650 resistant fusion proteins in live cells of S. aureus under different culture conditions . It has been shown that Vga(A)LC-GFP and Msr(A)-eqFP650 occur in a foci near the membrane. Depending on ATPase activity or the presence of an antibiotic, the localization of Msr(A)-eqFP650 in the cell changes from focal to diffuse, presumably on ribosomes, suggesting a...
Comparison of specific expression in bacterial and yeast biofilms
Kicko, Peter ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee)
The development and maintenance of biofilm is a complex process that is based on a change in genetic expression. The biofilm formation is observed in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. During its formation, cell aggregation occurs, extracellular matrix is created and we observe the formation of metabolically differentiable cells, often with increased resistance to antimicrobial drugs. This work focuses on important steps leading to biofilm formation associated with specific gene expression and highlights the similar and different processes between bacterial and yeast cells. The work begins by comparison of cell signalling, it continues by comparing the expression of the adhesive proteins and extracellular enzymes, synthesis of exopolysaccharides, formation of extracellular nucleic acid, and in the last chapter we focused on the formation of persistors. The aim of this work is to connect the acquired information and to contribute to the understanding the complexity of this process. Key words: biofilm, signalling, adhesins, exopolysaccharides, extracellular nucleic acid, persistor

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