National Repository of Grey Literature 11 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The effects of endocrine disruptors on the expression and the activity of cytochromes P450 2B in laboratory rat as a model organism
Měkotová, Barbora ; Dračínská, Helena (advisor) ; Levová, Kateřina (referee)
Endocrine disrupting chemicals are compounds that interfere with natural hormones and they are responsible for functional changes which may lead to damage of the endocrine system. Their presence in the environment is associated with a number of diseases whose extent is hard to predict. As endocrine disrupting chemicals, a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds is present in the environment. Important exogenous endocrine disrupting chemicals include benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2); the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) can act like endogenous endocrine disruptor. In this thesis, the effect of these three compounds and their combinations on the expression and the activity of rat biotransformation enzymes cytochromes P450 2B is studied. The gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR, the expression of the protein itself was studied using Western blot method and consecutive immunodetection. The results show that CYP2B expression is almost unchanged after BaP premedication, whereas estrogenic compounds, E2, EE2, their combination and their combinations with BaP, significantly decrease the expression. The enzyme activity of CYP2B was also studied in rat liver microsomes using the marker substrate 7-pentoxyresorufin. EE2, E2 and their combination decrease the...
The role of mixed function oxidases system with cytochrome P450 in metabolism of drugs and carcinogens
Mrízová, Iveta ; Stiborová, Marie (advisor) ; Levová, Kateřina (referee) ; Hansíková, Hana (referee)
6 Abstract Ellipticine (5,11-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole), an alkaloid isolated from Apocynaceae plants, exhibits significant antitumor and HIV activity. This antitumor agent binds to DNA and forms covalent DNA adducts. Enzymes, which are involved in its enzymatic activation, are cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. To elucidate the effect of ellipticine on the expression and enzymatic activity of the individual components of the microsomal mixed function oxidase system in different tissues, we used rat model. Simultaneously, the effect of ellipticine and its cytotoxicity on different tumor cell lines was also investigated. Another part of the presented work was targeted on preparation of anti-peptide antibody against orphan cytochrome P450 2S1, which is highly expressed in many human tumours of the epithelial origin, for its detection in these tissues. For better understanding how CYP2S1 can contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotics, the protein was prepared by heterologous expression in E. coli. Furher, its role in metabolism of an antitumor drug ellipticine, a carcinogenic environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and its derivate BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol was examined. Utilizing a mouse model, the impact of pulmonary inflammation on the metabolism of an environmental carcinogen was...
Study of the metabolism of 17α-ethinylestradiol by cytochromes P450
Valášková, Petra ; Černá, Věra (advisor) ; Levová, Kateřina (referee)
A synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is the main active component of the hormonal contraceptive pills. The rise of consumption of hormonal contraceptives has increased the risk of the back negative effects of EE2 to aquatic organisms. EE2 belongs to the endocrine disruptive compounds known for mimicking natural hormones. A more detailed examination of the transformation of this compound in vivo and in vitro can contribute to a better understanding of its negative effects. This master thesis is therefore devoted to the study of the metabolism of EE2 in two selected model organisms. The ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is the type of fungi with promising biodegradation ability to a lot of pollutants. These properties have led to numerous studies of the degradation potential of P. ostreatus towards EE2, with the possibility of removing this compound from the environment. EE2 has been degraded by the fungus P. ostreatus in vivo resulting in one hydroxylated metabolite, which estrogenic activity is in need for further study. In vitro studies were carried out with a microsomal fraction isolated from the mycelium of this fungus. The conversion of EE2 in vitro via CYPs dependent on NADPH has not been demonstrated, however using KHP as a cofactor, there was one metabolite of EE2 found,...
Application potential of modification approaches (chemical agents, photo-nanoprobes) and mass spectrometry to study protein structure and protein-protein interaction
Ptáčková, Renata ; Šulc, Miroslav (advisor) ; Levová, Kateřina (referee) ; Osička, Radim (referee)
A comprehensive understanding of physiological role of proteins requires knowledge of their three-dimensional structure, dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry represents an alternative approach to standard methods for protein structure elucidation (X-ray crystalography, NMR spectroscopy) and enables characterization of interaction interface within protein complexes in their native states. The presented thesis is mainly focused on novel cross-linking methodology based on the in vivo incorporation of methionine analog with photo-reactive functional group (photo-Met) into the sequence of studied protein (so called protein photo-nanoprobe). Interaction between two molecules of 14-3-3zeta protein was used as a model to test and optimize the protein photo-nanoprobe production. The findings confirmed usefulness of this approach for mapping the protein-protein interactions. The photo-initiated cross-linking was used to detect the heterooligomeric membrane structures of cytochromes P450 2B4 and b5 and the molar ratio of cytochromes within individual complexes was assessed. The chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry was employed to characterize the interaction of their catalytic domains and two mutual orientations of...
Mechanisms of anticancer drug action in neuroblastomas
Groh, Tomáš ; Stiborová, Marie (advisor) ; Levová, Kateřina (referee) ; Vališ, Karel (referee)
Cancer cells are able to adapt to different stress factors such as hypoxia, which is caused by insufficient tumor vascularization. An increased acetylation status of histones H3 and H4 in UKF-NB-3 and UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma cell lines was found to be a mechanism of adaptation of these cells to hypoxia. An increase in acetylation of histones H3 and H4 is suggested to cause changes in the structure of chromatin that lead to activation of gene transcription. In addition, cultivation of tested neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions changes expression of proteins of a transcription factor N-myc, which is essential for development of neuroblastomas. This transcription factor is also responsible for a metabolic adaptation of neuroblastoma cells, increases their aggressiveness and its expression leads to a worse prognosis of the disease. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) are suggested to be the promising agents exhibiting various anticancer effects. They can induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation or programmed cell death in sensitive tumors. In this study, the effect of one of inhibitors of HDACs, valproate, on expression of proteins of transcription factors N-myc and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was investigated. Valproate decreases protein levels of both transcription factors in...
Molecular mechanism of carcinogenicity of aristolochic acid
Levová, Kateřina ; Stiborová, Marie (advisor) ; Ryšlavá, Helena (referee) ; Souček, Pavel (referee)
Aristolochic acids (AA) are carcinogenic and nephrotoxic alkaloids from Aristolochia species. Aristolochic acid I (AAI), the major component of AA, causes the development of Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). These two diseases cause total renal failure and urothelial malignancies. The fact that these diseases have not been developed in all persons, who have been exposed to their action, might be causd by different activities and protein levels of the enzymes metabolizing AAI. Thus, the identification of enzymes involved in the metabolism, and detailed knowledge of their expression and catalytic specifities is a major importance. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) can be metabolized by several types of reactions. Like most nitroaromatics, the main activation pathway of AAI is reduction of its nitro group to form a cyclic acylnitrenium ion, which can bind to the purine bases, thereby forming AAI-DNA adducts. The detoxication pathway of AAI is its oxidative demethylation by cytochromes P450 forming detoxication metabolite 8-hydroxyaristolochic acid Ia (AAIa). In the present thesis, using rat and human enzymes and as well as several mice models, the metabolism of AAI in vitro and in vivo was investigated. The first model has deleted gene for NADPH:cytochrome P450...
The Process of Education in nursery school in France
Levová, Kateřina ; Klinka, Tomáš (advisor) ; Machleidtová, Silva (referee)
Title of the thesis: The process of education in nursery school in France This thesis deals with the process of education in nursery school in France. This topic concerns all pedagogic influence on the child while attending the school. The preparation of the work is based on the literary and the practical research. The practical research we chose is an observation of the teaching proces in nursery school and an interview with the teachers of these schools. The content of the thesis is divided into five essential domains. The first is the introduction to the theme of the process of education in nursery school. This part focuses on the objectives of the education and limits the period spent in nursery school. The second domain presents the conditions and organisitional factors of education. The third domain analyses the educational activities - their characteristic, classification and their connection with domains of progression from the national curriculum. The fourth domain deals with concrete examples of the activities. The last domain talks about the evaluation and by this conclude the theme of process of education. Keywords : education in nursery school, national curriculum, factors of education, organization of education, activities in nursery school, nursery school in France
Metabolic detoxication of carcinogenic aristolochic acids by cytochromes P450
Levová, Kateřina
Aristolochic acids (AA) are the major alkaloid of Aristolochia species. Carcinogenic and nephrotoxic plant alkaloid aristolochic acid I (AAI), the major toxic component of AA, causes the development of Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). It is a unique type of rapidly progressive renal fibrosis which leads to a total renal failure. AAI also causes a similar type of kidney fibrosis with malignant transformation of the urothelium, Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). One of the common features of AAN and BEN is that not all individuals exposed to AA suffer from nephropathy and tumor development. One possible explanation for these different responses could be individual differences in the activities of the enzymes catalyzing the biotransformation of AAI. Thus, the identification of enzymes principally involved in the metabolism of AAI, and detailed knowledge of their catalytic specificities is of a major importace. Aristolochic acid I is oxidized by demethylation to form AAIa. This metabolic pathway is known as detoxication. AAI metabolite AAIa was separated from AAI by HPLC. Therefore, the present study has been designed to evaluate the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification of AAI in rat and human liver. The efficiency of human recombinant CYPs to oxidize AAI was also tested. To find...

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