National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Structural and pharmacological determinants of NMDA receptor channel gating
Ladislav, Marek ; Krůšek, Jan (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heterotetramers containing two obligatory glycine-binding (GluN1) and two glutamate/glycine-binding (GluN2/3) subunits. These receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a key role in high order neuronal processes as a learning and formation of memory. It has been shown that dysregulation of NMDARs is involved in the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Each receptor is composed of four protomers exhibiting a conserved domain organization. The most distal part to the cell membrane is the amino-terminal domain that is linked to the ligand binding domain (LBD), which is connected to the pore-forming transmembrane domain (TMD) communicating with the intracellular carboxy-terminal domain. LBD and TMD are connected via three polypeptide chains - linkers. Channel opening is the key step in the NMDAR gating that allows the flux of ions across the membrane. The energy of agonist binding-evoked conformational changes is transferred via linkers to M3 helices forming an ion channel. The rearrangement of M3 helices in activated receptor makes the central cavity of the channel accessible. The details of energy transfer are not yet fully characterized, although accurate knowledge of the receptor gating...
Molecular mechanisms of the glycinergic signalization in the central nervous system
Melichar, Adolf ; Králíková, Michaela (advisor) ; Ladislav, Marek (referee)
The amino acid neurotransmitter glycine, which mediates the inhibitory transmission and regulates the excitatory signalization, is found in many regions of the central nervous system. It is produced especially the spinal cord and the brainstem, where glycine activates the presynaptic and postsynaptic Gly receptors (GlyR). In other regions of the brain, glycine is released in the area of occurrence of NMDA receptors (NMDAR), which it activates together with the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. The binding of the glycine leads to the opening of the channel of these ionotropic receptors and thus also to a change in the electrochemical properties of the membrane, such as permeability for Ca2+ ions, membrane potential and shunting. The expression of different subunits of NMDAR and GlyR is specific in terms of location and time, which enables various responses to the presence of glycine in the synaptic cleft and its surroundings. The concentration of glycine in synaptic cleft and glycinergic terminals is controlled especially by glycine transporters (GLYT), that are found in two functionally different types. The destabilisation of the equilibrium and signal mechanisms of glycine may lead to serious diseases such as hyperekplexia that can be caused by mutations in the glycine receptors and...
The effect of morphine on the distribution of signaling molecules of the opioid system in lipid rafts prepared from rat heart
Ladislav, Marek ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Rudajev, Vladimír (referee)
Morphine is an opioid agonist, which can exert cardioprotective effects under certain conditions. Lipid rafts are considered important platforms for membrane organization of signaling proteins and, therefore, these structures could play a role in the effects of morphine, which acts through the opioid receptors. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the distribution of the main components of the opioid receptor and Gi/o-mediated signaling pathway in lipid rafts isolated from rat myocardium, which was affected by various doses of morphine. Because we used different isolation techniques with different solubilization agents (Triton X-100, CHAPS, cholate and sodium carbonate) for preparation of lipid rafts, it was of interest to characterize more closely these preparations. Another aim of this study was to investigate how different methods of isolating these structures affect activity of the key target enzyme of the opioid signaling pathway, i.e. adenylyl cyclase. The presence of signaling molecules of the Gi/o/AC pathway of the opioid system in membrane rafts was confirmed and the distribution of selected proteins was dependent on the type of extractant. We also observed the effect of morphine on the localization of proteins in lipid rafts. Different extractants provided different degree of...
Opioid receptors and their signaling system in the myocardium
Ladislav, Marek ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Neckář, Jan (referee)
The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to systematically collect and sort information about opioid receptors and their signaling system in the myocardium. Heart activity is controlled mainly by adrenergic signaling, and this work therefore contains also some data concerning the characteristic and significance of other relevant receptors. For better understanding, general basic information about opioid system, especially about the receptors and their signaling, is also provided. Relatively little is known about opioid receptors in the myocardium even though these receptors may have an important role especially in various pathophysiological conditions. There can be several reasons for this. The possibility of further characterization of opioid receptors in the myocardium is rather difficult due to the relatively small number of these receptors in heart tissue. The situation is somewhat complicated also by some differences in the modulation of cardiac function among different species. The complete molecular mechanism by which opioid receptors act on the myocardium has not yet been fully uncovered. Especially in the case of humans this knowledge can be crucial, because these receptors and their ligands could be used for medical purposes.

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