National Repository of Grey Literature 3 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The role of morphogenes in stem cell neurogenic differentiation in mammals
Slováková, Lucie ; Tlapáková, Tereza (advisor) ; Kyclerová, Hana (referee)
Stem cells are non-differentiated self-renewing cell population that can derive different kinds of cell types according to their differential potential. Neurogenic differentiation is the process of generating of all three types of nervous systems from the neural stem cells. This process is common for embryonic development, however neurogenesis appears to be present also in adult mammalian brain. It continues to generate new neurons within its microenvironments called niches and we can find two major areas of neurogenesis. One is the subventricular zone of the forebrain, the other is the subgranular zone within the hippocampal dental gyrus. In these niches we can find specific signaling molecules called morphogens. Morphogens function in regulating neural stem cell activity. They play a part in proliferation, differentiation and cell migration, thus determining the fate of neural cells. In addition, morphogens play an important role in many diseases and cancers.
The expression and regulation of Dexras1 in the rat brain under development
Kyclerová, Hana ; Bendová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Jelínková, Dana (referee)
The Dexras1 gene was identified after induction by glucocorticoid dexamethasone in pituitary tumor cells. Dexras1 has also been found in other brain regions and in the peripheral organs but its expression is rhythmic only in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN), where the mammalian main circadian pacemaker is located. Dexras1 expression was also affected by stress, amphetamine or prenatal alcohol exposure. Its role in cells has not yet been explained. Dexras1 GTPase activity has been determined to be dependent on the NMDA receptor stimulation. Dexras1 acts as an activator of G protein signaling in cells. Its role has been detected in neuronal iron homeostasis or in the regulation of main circadian pacemaker sensitivity to photic and nonphotic synchronization cues during the day. The aim of our study was to describe the Dexras1 mRNA expression in the rat brain during ontogeny and during development after visual sensory deprivation by in situ hybridization. The earliest Dexras1 expression was detected on embryonic day 20, in the rat SCN and the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus. Postnatally, its expression also appeared in other sensory areas, motor thalamic areas, hypothalamic areas involved in the regulation of water homeostasis, or in limbic system. Our results further show...
Circadian system in bulbus olfactorius
Kyclerová, Hana ; Bendová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Polidarová, Lenka (referee)
The mammalian circadian system is composed of major circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and peripheral circadian oscillators. Molecular mechanism of interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops, as a characteristic of each circadian oscillator, results in circadian rhythms. Peripheral oscillators in other brain parts and body organs are driven by the signals from the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Some structures however generate oscillations independently from the major circadian pacemaker. The best described of them resides in the mammalian retina. The retinal circadian oscillator regulates local rhythmic synthesis of melatonin, retinal pH and photoreceptors viability. Recently, some studies occur charactering the existence of such an independent circadian oscillator also in bulbus olfactorius. For example, the olfactory bulb circadian oscillator drives olfactory sensitivity during the day. Studies about development of the mamalian circadian system have shown that the olfactory bulb circadian oscillator matures earlier than the major circadian pacemaker and represents its function during early development. Powered by TCPDF (

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