National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Overweight and obesity in seven-year children: influence of environmental factors, change since 2008
Metelcová, Tereza ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Vignerová, Jana (referee)
Obesity is defined as excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body. Obesity is measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI). In children, BMI is adjusted according to age. Simple obesity is a multifactorial disease. The aim of my work is to find out the influence of environmental factors (dietary habits, sleeping times, parents' education, lack of physical activity) on overweight and obesity in seven-year-old children in the Czech Republic, prevalence of overweight and obesity in seven years old children in the Czech Republic according to various reference methods (WHO, CAV, IOTF, CDC). The diploma thesis is based on the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). In 2016, the fourth round of the COSI project in the Czech Republic took place. Measurement of seven-year-old children took place in the framework of preventive examinations with GPs. Part of the project was the completion of questionnaires by the family and the school. In the fourth round, data were obtained from 1,718 children (824 boys, 894 girls) in the age category of 6.5 to 7.99 years. Between 2013 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight of boys increased by 2.16% (from 11.78 % to 13.94) and increased by 0.9 % for girls (from 12.75 % to 13.65 %). The prevalence of obesity between 2013 and 2016 increased by 0.79 % (from...
Overweight and obesity in seven-year children and adipose tissue distribution
Vodrážková, Nicole ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Vignerová, Jana (referee)
This diploma thesis is based on the fourth round of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. From 1718 children aged 6.5 - 7.99 were collected anthropometric data and characteristics of family and school environment. Prevalence of overweight and obesity, risk distributions of adipose tissue and evaluation of factors affecting abdominal obesity was evaluated. Increase of overweight and obesity was found for boys, increase of overweight and loose of obesity was found for girls. Elevated waist circumference and WHtR were evaluated in both sexes. Year-on-year changes are not statistically significant, overall the stagnating trend of child overweight and obesity has been evaluated. High WHtR was also shown by individuals in normal weight category. Of the rated family characteristics, family anamnesis of obesity, weight of parents, time spent with TV / computers, and mother's education is primarily involved in the risky distribution of fatty tissue. Keywords overweight, obesity, prevalence, nutrition, physical activity, WHtR, waist circumference
The influence of very-low calorie diet and pharmacologic interventions on adipose tissue metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Gregová, Monika ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Žourek, Michal (referee)
(EN) Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are among metabolic disease with increasing incidence and prevalence. Last decade has been devoted to intensive research focused on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying development of these diseases. Besides environmental factors, lifestyle and amount and composition of food, adipose tissue is a key player in the pathogenesis of obesity and its metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR) and T2DM. Primary aim of our work was to evaluate the role of recently discovered adipokine omentin and the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and in peripheral monocytes (PM) in patients with obesity and T2DM with respect to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. A total number of 118 subjects enrolled in the study were divided into three groups: patients with obesity and T2DM (T2DM group), obese non-diabetics (OB) and healthy lean subjects as a control group (KO). Study subjects underwent several types of interventions - 2 to 3 weeks of very-low calorie diet (VLCD, energy intake 600 kcal per day), regular physical activity program or bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, LSG). Results indicate that low serum omentin concentrations may contribute to development of obesity-associated...
Insulin resistance and postprandial state in type 2 diabetes. The effect of meal frequency and composition on glucose metabolism and other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome
Thieme, Lenka ; Pelikánová, Terezie (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Šmahelová, Alena (referee)
The project focuses on dietary interventions in type 2 diabetes(T2D). The aim was to investigate how glucose metabolism and other manifestations of insulin resistance should be influenced by a) the composition of macronutrients and b) frequency of meals; and to characterize the possible mechanisms of these dietary interventions in patients with T2D. A. In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients T2D and 50 age-matched healthy subjects underwent in a random order meal tolerance tests with three isocaloric meals (vegan sandwich; V-meal, hamburger; M-meal, or cheese sandwich; S-meal. Blood samples for analysis were taken at time 0 and after 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after meal ingestion. Plasma concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, oxidative stress markers and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) were investigated. Both basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were significantly higher in patients with T2D (p<0.001); basal and postprandial concentrations of almost all other GIHs (except for ghrelin) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly increased (p<0.001), while ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in patients with T2D compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). The meal rich...
Comparison of factors affecting the origin of overweight and obesity at seven years old children and adolescents
Hanusová, Tereza ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Vignerová, Jana (referee)
This diploma thesis is based on a study of seven year old children Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) processed by Institute of Endocrinology sponsored by WHO Europe and MZ ČR and on a study of adolescents Childhood Obesity Prevalence And Treatment (COPAT) organized by Institute of Endocrinology sponsored by Norway grants and MŠMT ČR. These studies were focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents and on factors possibly related to origin of overweight and obesity. Obesity is a severe chronical multifactorial disease that significantly affects health conditions and development of children. Obesity, as a risk factor, is involved in origin of cardiometabolic problems (II. type diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia), cancer, musculosceletal problems and reproductive system disorders (infertility, hypogonadism, polycystic ovary syndrome, disorders of sexual development in children). Preventive programs, focused on childhood obesity, are important part of health care. These programs are based on results of factors involved in the origin of obesity. The aim of this thesis is determine and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity in seven year old children and adolescents by classification of Czech republic, WHO...
Childhood obesity - the epidemiological study
Mádlová, Markéta ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Kudlová, Eva (referee)
Obesity is considered to be one of the diseases related to the change in the lifestyle, leading to increased incidence of myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other diseases. Due to the progressively increasing prevalence of obesity in adulthood, prevention of obesity has to start in childhood and adolescent, in which also increase in prevalence of obesity was found. Actual prevalence of overweight and obesity was tested in this thesis by different standards (5. NAS, WHO, IOTF, CDC) in Czech children population in age of 6.5 - 7.5 years in 2013. Its trend since 1951 was evaluated. Since 2008 maintaining of the values in all categories at the constant level was found. The role of risk factors assessed by personal, family and school questionnaires in overweight prevalence was tested. The most important factors were diet, exercise and family factors. Increased weight/height ratio (WHtR) marker of adipose tissue was found in the category of normal weight children also and it shows the link with above-mentioned risk factors of diet, exercise and family prediction. Key words Obesity, Overweight, Prevalence, Childhood, BMI, 5. NAS, WHO, IOTF, CDC, COSI, WHtR, Waist circumference, Risk factors
Amelioration of obesity-associated disorders by n-3 PUFA and oleuropein: adipocentric view
Svobodová, Michaela ; Flachs, Pavel (advisor) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Science Department of Genetics and Microbiology Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Institute of Physiology, v.v.i Synopsis of Ph.D. Thesis Amelioration of obesity -associated disorders by n-3 PUFA and oleuropein: adipocentric view Michaela Svobodová Praha 2015 Doktorské studijní programy v biomedicine 1 2 Univerzita Karlova v Praze a Akademie věd České republiky Program: Molekulární a buněčná biologie, genetika a virologie Předseda oborové rady: prof. RNDr. Stanislav Zadražil, DrSc. Školicí pracoviště: Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i. Autor: Michaela Svobodová Školitel: RNDr. Pavel Flachs, Ph.D. S disertací je možno se seznámit v příslušných knihovnách Přírodovědecké fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Praze.
Role of adiponectin and B-type natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis
Wedellová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Horáková, Olga (referee)
Obesity is a most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Prevalence of obesity is consistently growing in all continents during last years. Primarily the increase of incidence of obesity in children is alarming. Obesity is linked to elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers and disorders of musculoskeletal system. The cost of the treatment of diseases linked to obesity is annually increasing and obesity represents very important part of costs of health system in developed - and recently also developing - countries. This fact shows the necessity of research in the area of preventive and therapeutic procedures. The development of metabolic disturbances linked to obesity is associated with dysfunction of adipose tissue. Its two main features are: 1) altered secretion of specific substance with hormonal or paracrinne charakter (called adipokines) and 2) elevated mobilization of non- esterified fatty acids (NEMK) from adipose tissue and subsequently their increased release into the circulation (1). In our studies we paid attention to the study of lipolysis. The rate of lipolysis is the primary factor that determines the release of NEFA from adipose tissue. We focused to a role of adiponectin and natriuretic peptid type B (BNP) in the regulation of lipolysis in...

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