National Repository of Grey Literature 31 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The forensic analysis of soil by FTIR and NIR with multivariate analysis
Nawrath, Pavel ; Kučerík, Jiří (referee) ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (advisor)
This diploma thesis is about forensic multivariate soil analysis in the localities Ostrava and Třinec. A total of 52 samples were taken in the areas near metallurgical companies. These samples were measured for concentrations of chromium, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and zinc. Mercury concentration was analysed using AMA 254 device. The remaining metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F–AAS). Additionally, IR spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using diffusion reflectance technique (DRIFT). In the end the results were used to create correlation models and statistical models of PCA (principal component analysis) methods with CA (correlation analysis).
Development of methods for fast soil analysis
Křivánková, Zuzana ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
The submitted diploma thesis aims to extend the use of thermogravimetry for the analysis of organic C and total N contents in soils. The advantages of thermogravimetry in comparison to conventional analytical methods are that it is a versatile technique that provides fast analysis, does not require sample pretreatment and chemicals– and can be used for the analysis of various soil types. The research work performed so far showed correlations between thermogravimetric data and some soil properties. In the past, intact soils exposed to 76% relative humidity (RH) were analyzed by thermogravimetry for these purposes. However, this humidity is problematic to achieve and maintain for most thermogravimeters. Recent work has shown that correlations can be observed in agricultural land exposed to lower RH. Therefore, it can be assumed that a correlation between TG data exists in soils exposed to any RH. TG could then be used to analyze soil properties under any known RH conditions. The aim of this work was to verify this hypothesis and try to incorporate knowledge of RH into the relationships between TG and soil properties. For this reason, intact soils exposed to the relative humidity of 30, 55, and 76% were analyzed in this work. It was demonstrated the dependence between organic C content and mass loss between 320 and 330°C as well as total nitrogen content and mass loss between 410 and 420°C independently of relative humidity. Based on that knowledge, we have derived equations enabling determination of the content of organic C and total N for RH ranging 43% - 76% using mass losses and knowledge of RH. Nevertheless, due to the low number of tested RH, the equations are still only preliminary and need to be improved by analyzing soil samples at a larger number of RH.
Determination of PLA microplastics in soil by using pyrolysis methods
Románeková, Ivana ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
Nowadays, plastic waste poses one of the greatest risks to the environment. Plastics affect the environment at all stages of their life cycle. Bioplastics have become widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics, without detailed examination of their behavior in real environmental conditions. As a result, it is assumed that they can accumulate in the environment and the question arose as to how to identify them. The main goal of this thesis is to develop a method based on sample pyrolysis that is suitable for the identification and determination of the amount of PLA microplastics in soil and other solid matrices. Three types of soils and sludge were used for analysis. These matrices were spiked to obtain concentration ranges 0,2% - 5,0%. The pyrolysis resulted in evolution of gases with the signals m/z 29, 43 and 44, witch originated from PLA and are suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of PLA in sludge was more complicated due to similarity of gases evolved from pure matrices. We tested three approaches based on analysis of signal´s peak areas, intensities and temperatures of gas evolution. While the first approach failed, the last two approaches appeared to be promising for qualitative and quantitative analysis of PLA in the sludge. Several methods suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of even very small amounts of PLA in soils and sludge have also been designed/developed. These methods were based on analysis of the composition and dynamics of the released gases and the characterisctic degradation temperatures.
Influence of different forms of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on soil organic matter properties
Miklasová, Marta ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
Nanoparticles present potential risk for environmental compartments including soil. Previous works have been focused on negative effects of nanoparticles on soil biota, however studies about the influence of nanoparticles on soil properties are still limited. This thesis investigates an impact of 20 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticles on selected water properties in soil organic matter exposed to air with various relative humidity. Indeed, at 43, 70 and 95 % dominate different water types, i.e. water adsorbed on soil organic matter, water in water molecular bridges and phase water, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used in the study. An important finding is that nanoparticles reduce the stability of water molecular bridges under 70% relative air humidity and generally reduce evaporation enthalpy of water, which represents the ability of the soil to retain water. In the next part the influence of nanoparticles on total water in soil was observed. Under low relative humidity, rutile and anatase affected soil in different ways due to their various hydrophilicity. Under higher relative humidity this effect disappeared. In the last part, ice melting and water evaporation enthalpies of nanoparticle solutions were measured to confirm the presumed effect of nanoparticles on water. The ice melting enthalpy of the solutions was higher relatively to pure water, while the evaporation enthalpy showed a reverse trend (decrease). This confirmed the effects of nanoparticles both for pure water and soil water.
Analysis of biodegradable polymers in soils
Paluchová, Natálie ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
Currently, there is a growing interest in usage of biodegradable polymers, regardless of their possible risk of generation of residues. The methods that are used for determination of residues usually include pre-treatment and are expensive and time consuming. Therefore, this bachelor thesis focuses on the development and verification of analytical method that would identify and quantify of biodegradable polymer residues in soils to eliminate the problems arising from sample pre-treatment. Therefore, thermogravimetry, which appears to satisfy the above conditions, was used for the analysis. The area of polymer degradation in three types of soils during thermal oxidation and the effect of polymer on soil during the analysis was investigated. Poly(3 hydroxybutyrate) was chosen to be the representative biodegradable polymer and there were two approaches used to its detection and quatification. The methods were tested for 6 concentrations of poly(3–hydroxybutyrate) (0,1; 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 5 %). The first approach concentrated on the usage of polymer analysis in the presence of a blank (without contaminat), which was subtracted from the blank. Using this method, the temperature interval of polymer degradation and weigh loss changes in this interval were observed. The second method focused on a soil universal model, that allows the identification and quatification of samples when the blank is not present. The blank is simulated by 19 equations, that allow the identification of intervals, in which degradation of samples occurs and also it provides the possibility to determinate the type of the polymer. However, the principle component analysis indicated that the method is sensitive to the type of soil and therefore it needs adjustments. Samples were incubated for 4 months, to verify the sensitivity of the method, in case of partial or complete decomposition of samples by soil microorganisms,. Thereafter, the concentrations of poly(3-hydroxybutryrate) in soil determined by respirometry and thermogravimetry were compared. The results indicated that accelerated degradation caused by poly(3-hydroxybutrylate) or contamination of the sample with the surrounding atmosphere during respiration may have occurred. Residual poly(3–hydroxybutyrate) was thermogravimetrically verified and results were compared to respirometry. According to the results it can be observed that there was an interaction between the soil organic matter and biota or contamination of the sample with the surrounding atmosphere. The results revealed, that there is a possibility of determination of biodegradable polymers in soils by thermogravimetric analysis. There are good results using the blank method, but it is limited by the existence of a blank. The method that is using the soil universal model (without blank) has a great potential in the future, but adjustments still need to be done.
Detection of PET microplastics in soils
Kameníková, Eliška ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
The use of plastics leads to their gradual degradation and consequently to the formation of microplastics, i.e. the millimeter sized particles, which have been shown to cause environmental problems. Currently, the microplastics detection studies are focused on aquatic environments, but the investigation of microplastics in soils is still limited by the lack of appropriate analytical methods. The aim of this thesis was to verify the possibility to detect the PET microplastics in different soil types based on the results obtained by using thermogravimetry. Thermogravimetry data were evaluated in two ways, using a blank soil sample and using a recalibrated universal soil standard. The results showed that the thermo-oxidative properties of PET microplastics were not influenced by soil type, but vice versa, PET has affected the thermo-oxidative behavior of soils and soil processes. Furthermore, it was confirmed that recalibrated equations of the universal soil model can be used to analyze microplastics in soils.
Controlled Drug Release from Biodegradable Hydrogels.
Oborná, Jana ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This dissertation is focused on the controlled release of drugs from a biodegradable amphiphilic hydrogel based on hydrophobic poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA, ABA) and its modification with itaconic anhydride (ITA). The resulting ,-itaconyl(PLGA-PEG-PLGA) copolymer is referred to as ITA/PLGA-PEG-PLGA/ITA or ITA/ABA/ITA. Itaconic acid provides reactive double bonds and a functional carboxyl group at the ends of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer chain, thereby rendering the modified ITA/ABA/ITA copolymer less hydrophobic and offering the possibility of forming a carrier for hydrophilic drug substances. These functional copolymers are thermosensitive and change in the external environment (e.g. temperature) causes a sol-gel phase transition due to the formation of micellar structure. The bioactive substances can thus be mixed with a copolymer which is in a low viscous phase (sol phase) and subsequently the mixture can be injected into patient's body at the target site where it forms a gel at 37 °C. This hydrogel becomes a drug depot, which gradually releases the active substance. Prediction of the substance’s release profile from the hydrogel is an effective tool to determine the frequency of administration, potentially enhancing efficacy, and assessment of side effects associated with dosing. The analgesic paracetamol and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfathiazole were used as model drugs, representing hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, respectively. The active substances had a significant effect on the resulting hydrogel stiffness. Type of solvent, incubation medium and nanohydroxyapatite also influenced on the gel stiffness and subsequent stability of the hydrogel-drug system. Controlled release of drugs took place in simulated conditions of the human body. Verification of Korsmeyer-Peppas (KP) drug-release model is also discussed in this thesis. The KP model was found suitable for simulating the release of sulfathiazole from ABA and ITA/ABA/ITA hydrogels. On the contrary, the performance of KP model was not suitable for describing the release of paracetamol from the ABA hydrogels. Therefore, a new regression model suitable for both buffered simulated media and water has been proposed. The proposed model fitted better the release of both sulfathiazole and paracetamol from composite material prepared from ABA hydrogel and nanohydroxyapatite.
Hydration of biochar prepared by using microwave pyrolysis of municipal sludge
Miklasová, Marta ; Komendová, Renata (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
Microwave pyrolysis represents a possible solution of municipal sludge disposal. One of the final products of pyrolysis is amorphous porous carbon material called biochar, which can be used in agriculture as a soil amendment. As a rule, biochar is hydrophobic, but its addition can lead to an increase in water holding capacity. However, reasons of this improvement cannot be explained only by its high porosity. This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding the interactions between biochar and water under various environmental-relevant conditions such as direct water addition method and water adsorption from ambient air at different relative humidity. The thermo-analytical methods are common for investigation of the relationship between water and organic materials. One of these methods, differential scanning calorimetry, was used in this thesis. The first experiment was focused on measuring of melting enthalpy of freezable water in biochar pores. The results reflect the influence of pore size and properties of ice structure. The extrapolation of concentration dependence to zero enthalpy was used to determine non-freezing water (0,13–0,15 mg·mg-1 biochar), which reflects microporosity of the biochar. The second experiment was focused on the determination of evaporation enthalpy of water from biochar, which is a measure of the strength of water binding in biochar. This value indirectly reflects the mechanisms of the intake and release of water by biochar. Comparing the results for bound and pure water showed that in biochar is water bound weaker about 10–20 %. This led to conclusion that biochar binds water relatively weakly and the water exchange between biochar and soil is fast, despite the biochar hydrophobicity.
Nanoparticles of platinum metals in the environment
Berka, Michal ; Kučerík, Jiří (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
Platinum nanoparticles, mainly released from automotive catalysts, pose a potential risk to the environment. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to investigate the effect of platinum nanoparticles on soil properties at different humidities. Specifically, how nanoparticles affect the stability of hydrogen bridges, the stability of aliphatic crystals, and water retention in soil. For the analysis of relations between platinum nanoparticles, water and soil, a method of thermal analysis was used, namely differential scanning calorimetry. The theoretical part is devoted to the general introduction to platinum metals and nanoparticles. And the preparation of nanoparticles, their characterization and their properties. The result of the experiments is that platinum nanoparticles affect the soil properties relatively significantly.
Relationship between thermo-oxidative stability and soil quality indicators
Svatoň, Karel ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
This diploma thesis focuses on the use of thermogravimetry as quick and low-cost method in the analysis of soil quality. Most of the currently used methods for analyzing some soil properties are, unlike thermogravimetry, demanding especially for pretreatment and analysis time. Previous research has shown an interesting correlation between thermogravimetry data and some soil properties, but to obtain these correlations, it is necessary to keep the analyzed soils at 76% relative humidity. The aim of this work was to determine whether similar correlations can also by achieved at lower relative humidities. Therefore, soil samples in this work were thermogravimetrically analyzed at 43% relative humidity. That humidity is closer to laboratory conditions and it is also easier to be reached by most of commercially available thermogravimeters. Next aim of this thesis was to find whether thermogravimetric data correlate with other soil properties, especially microbiological indicators of soil quality. Results showed that thermogravimetry of soil samples correlates with standard methods even at 43% humidity. Furthermore, it was found that they also correlate with selected microbiological parameters, such as anaerobic ammonification or urease activity. These results suggest the possibility of using thermogravimetry analysis at broader spectrum of soil properties, without the need for pretreatment of samples and at different (relevant) soil moisture.

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