National Repository of Grey Literature 36 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Estimation of mechanical parameters of thin films using finite element analysis
Tinoco Navaro, Hector Andres ; Holzer, Jakub ; Pikálek, Tomáš ; Buchta, Zdeněk ; Lazar, Josef ; Chlupová, Alice ; Kruml, Tomáš ; Hutař, Pavel
This study shows a methodology to estimate mechanical parameters of thin films by means of a bulge\ntest and a numerical approach. The methodology is based on the combination of finite element analysis with a\nclassical analytical method. Finite element modelling was conducted for monolayer (Si3N4) membranes of 2x2mm\nwith the aim to approximate both the load-deflection curves experimentally measured and the classical loaddeflection\nanalytical model. Error functions were constructed and minimized to delimit a coupled solution space\nbetween Young’s modulus and Poison’s ratio. In a traditional bulge test analysis only one of the elastic properties\ncan be determined due to that there is not unique solution in the estimations of these parameters. However, both\nelastic parameters were determined through the proposed numerical procedure which compares the deformed\nsurfaces for a specific set of optimal elastic parameters computed. Results shows that the estimated elastic\nproperties agree with corresponding values determined by other methods in the literature
High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms
Heczko, Milan ; Gröger,, Roman (referee) ; Spätig, Philipp (referee) ; Kruml, Tomáš (advisor)
Dvě pokročilé vysoce legované austenitické oceli s Fe-Ni-Cr matricí byly studovány za podmínek nízkocyklové únavy jak za pokojové tak vysoké teploty. Široká škála experimentálních a charakterizačních nástrojů byla použita ke studiu vzájemně souvisejících aspektů zahrnujících chemické složení slitin, mikrostrukturu, deformační mechanismy a celkovou odezvu materiálů na externě působící zatížení. Klíčové mechanismy a faktory definující mechanické vlastnosti a výkonnost v reálném provozu byly analyzovány a diskutovány v souvislosti s materiálovým designem. • Standardní únavové experimenty byly provedeny za pokojové teploty a teploty 700°C. Byly získány křivky cyklického zpevnění/změkčení, cyklické deformační křivky, Coffin-Manson a Wöhlerovy křivky. • Ke studiu změn mikrostrukturního stavu slitin v důsledku cyklického zatěžování za pokojové a zvýšené teploty byla použita široká škála technik charakterizace pomocí elektronové mikroskopie. • Únavové chování, pevnost a cyklická plastická odezva studovaných materiálů byla vysvětlena v souvislosti s mikrostrukturními změnami a mikrostrukturními aspekty deformačních mechanismů jak za pokojové tak za zvýšených teplot. • Bylo zjištěno, že Sanicro 25 vykazuje nejvyšší pevnostní charakteristiky ze všech materiálů stejné třídy. Výjimečné vlastnosti této slitiny jsou spojeny s populacemi dvou typů nanočástic, koherentními precipitáty bohatými na měď a nanočásticemi typu MX s charakteristikou disperzoidu. Tyto nanočástice mají klíčový vliv na pevnost a celkovou cyklickou odezvu. V důsledku interakcí s precipitáty způsobujících zachytávání je pohyb dislokací v Sanicro 25 významně zpomalen, což vede k potlačení normálních procesů zotavení obvykle vedoucích ke změně uspořádání dislokační struktury tak, aby byla celková vnitřní energie systému co nejnižší. Takové uspořádání je tvořeno například dislokačními buňkami. Jelikož jsou procesy zotavení potlačeny, dislokační struktura za vysokých teplot je charakteristická homogenní distribucí dislokací o vysoké hustotě s velkou mírou vzájemných interakcí. V kombinaci s dalšími mechanismy zpevnění jako jsou precipitáty a substituční prvky v tuhém roztoku, tyto deformační mechanismy vedou k významnému zvýšení cyklické pevnosti za vysokých teplot.
Fatigue crack initiation and growth in 316L steel in torsional cyclic loading
Karol, Michal ; Chlupová, Alice ; Mazánová, Veronika ; Kruml, Tomáš
Fatigue crack initiation and growth study in 316L austenitic stainless steel was made in cyclic\ntorsion. The experiments on hollow cylindrical specimens were performed at room temperature using fully reversed shear strain controlled cycles. The specimens used were polished mechanically and electrolytically to enable surface damage and crack propagation observation using optical light microscope, SEM. It was found that high density of extrusions and intrusions are formed on the specimen surface due to cyclic loading. TEM observations revealed that dislocation arrangement in well-known ladder-like structure is responsible for the localization of cyclic plastic deformation and for the origin of surface roughness in which the fatigue crack nucleate. The path of fatigue cracks leading to failure was observed, too. The crack path\nwas found to be dependent upon the applied shear strain amplitude.
Measurement of mechanical properties of thin films using the bulge test technique
Holzer, Jakub ; Cieslar, Miroslav (referee) ; Kruml, Tomáš (advisor)
Main objective of this diploma thesis is to finish a construction of the Bulge test apparatus for measurement of thin films, perform first tests on commercially available Si3N4 membranes and bilayer membrane with aluminium. First part of the thesis is focused mainly on literature review of current knowledge regarding this topic and other methods of thin films testing. Experimental part deals with construction of apparatus, methodology of data evaluation and results of the measurement. The thin films of interest are fabricated as amorphous silicon nitride or bilayer of mentioned nitride and either aluminium, titanium or Ta-B-C layer. The apparatus has been built in house in collaboration with Institute of Scientific Instruments of CAS. Both reliability and repeatability of this method has been tested on over 160 measurements of commercially available membrane. The results of measurements are compared with literature and nanoindentation test. More detailed data analysis is currently under development with colleagues at Institute of Physics of Materials. It has been proven beyond doubt that Bulge test method and constructed apparatus are suitable for the measurement of several mechanical properties of thin films.
Development of the bulge test equipment for measuring mechanical properties of thin films
Holzer, Jakub ; Pikálek, Tomáš ; Buchta, Zdeněk ; Lazar, Josef ; Tinoco, H.A. ; Chlupová, Alice ; Kruml, Tomáš
The bulge test apparatus designed for the measurement of mechanical material properties of thin films was constructed and tested. The principle of the test is to apply pressure on a free-standing membrane, to measure the membrane shape and to analyse the results. Commercially available silicon nitride (Si3N4) thin films were used for the testing. It is shown that interferometric set-up designed and assembled for the apparatus enables precise determination of 3D shape of the whole membrane, which allows more precise determination of materials parameters compared to measurement of the height of the center of the membrane only. Fit of an analytical formula gives values of Young modulus and residual stress with very good agreement with the literature data. Moreover, FEM model of the bulged membrane was developed. The main aim of the effort is to enable measurement of plastic properties of a thin film of interest, that will be deposited on the Si3N4 membrane with known properties and bulge test will be performed on the bilayer specimen. Subsequently, the material properties of the thin film will be obtained using FEM analysis.
Detecting plasticity in al thin films by means of bulge test
Holzer, Jakub ; Pikálek, Tomáš ; Buchta, Zdeněk ; Lazar, Josef ; Tinoco, H.A. ; Chlupová, Alice ; Náhlík, Luboš ; Sobota, Jaroslav ; Fořt, Tomáš ; Kruml, Tomáš
The Bulge test proved to be a useful tool for measuring elastic properties of thin films and\nfree standing membranes, particularly Young’s modulus and residual stress. The basic principle\nof bulge test is application of differential pressure on one side of the a membrane, measurement of\nthe shape of bulged surface as a function of pressure, in this case via laser interferometer, and\nevaluation of a pressure-deflection relationship. In this study, bilayer membrane consisting of a\nsilicon nitride supporting layer and an aluminium layer deposited by means of magnetron\nsputtering is subjected to the bulge test. The results clearly show signs of a non-linear behavior\nthat is caused by plastic deformation in the aluminium layer. Finite element analysis is being\ndeveloped to describe this behavior because analytical model using deflection of central point and\npressure relation falls apart in case of non-linearity.
LCF behaviour of 301LN steel: coarse-grained vs. UFG-bimodal structure
Man, Jiří ; Chlupová, Alice ; Kuběna, Ivo ; Kruml, Tomáš ; Man, O. ; Järvenpää, A. ; Karjalainen, L. P. ; Polák, Jaroslav
Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of metastable austenitic 301LN steel with different grain sizes – coarse-grained (14 µm) and UFG (1.4 µm) with a grain bimodality – produced by reversion annealing (RA) was investigated. Symmetrical push-pull LCF tests were conducted on flat sheet specimens at room temperature with constant strain rate of 2×10–3 s–1 and constant total strain amplitude ranging from 0.4% to 0.8%. After completion of fatigue tests a ferritescope was adopted for quantitative assessment of volume fraction of deformation induced martensite (DIM). Microstructural changes, distribution and morphology of DIM in the volume of material were characterized at different scales by colour etching, TEM and EBSD techniques. Experimental data on microstructural changes are confronted with the stress-strain response and with the chemical heterogeneity present in the material.
Effect of alloying and thermal processing on mechanical properties of tial alloys
Chlupová, Alice ; Heczko, Milan ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Beran, Přemysl ; Kruml, Tomáš
Two -based TiAl alloys with 7 at.% of Nb, alloyed with 2 at.% Mo and 0.5 at.% C, were studied. A heat treatment leading to very fine lamellar microstructure was applied on both alloys. Microstructure after the heat treatment was described and mechanical properties including fatigue behaviour were measured. The as-received material alloyed with C possesses high strength and very limited ductility, especially at RT. After application of selected heat treatment it becomes even more brittle; therefore, this process could be considered as not appropriate for this alloy. On the contrary, in the case of Mo alloyed material, both strength and ductility are improved by the heat treatment at RT and usual working temperature (~750 °C). Presence of the phase is responsible for this effect. The selected heat treatment thus can be an alternative for this alloy to other thermomechanical treatments as high temperature forging.
Interferometrical system for bulge test thin film characterization
Pikálek, Tomáš ; Holzer, Jakub ; Tinoco, H.A. ; Buchta, Zdeněk ; Lazar, Josef ; Chlupová, Alice ; Náhlík, Luboš ; Sobota, Jaroslav ; Fořt, Tomáš ; Kruml, Tomáš
Behavior of thin film materials undergoing stress and deformation differs from bulk materials. A common method for the mechanical characterization of thin films is nanoindentation based on indenting a small tip into the material. A different approach is a bulge test technique. In this method, a differential pressure is applied on a free-standing membrane and the mechanical properties (Young’s modulus and residual stress) are calculated from the shape of the bulged membrane. In our experiments, we developed an interferometrical system for the membrane shape measurement during the bulge test.
Microstructure and properties of enhanced twin-roll cast aluminium alloys.
Poková, Michaela ; Cieslar, Miroslav (advisor) ; Karlík, Miroslav (referee) ; Kruml, Tomáš (referee)
Three aluminium alloys from AA3003 series modified by zirconium were pre- pared by twin-roll casting. The role of composition, heat treatment and deforma- tion by cold-rolling or equal channel angular pressing on evolution of microstruc- ture and mechanical properties were studied. High density of α-Al(Mn,Fe)Si pre- cipitates formed during annealing between 300 ◦ C and 500 ◦ C. Coherent Al3Zr particles precipitated during annealing at 450 ◦ C with slow heating rate. Recrys- tallization resistance of deformed alloys was enhanced by either Al3Zr precipitates formed before deformation or by α-Al(Mn,Fe)Si particles nucleating simultane- ously with recrystallization. 1

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