National Repository of Grey Literature 35 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.11 seconds. 
Study on interaction of humic substances with surface active agents
Bělušová, Anna ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Smilek, Jiří (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of interactions between humic acids (HK), as the main component of soil organic matter, and model pollutants in the form of surfactants through unconventional and original combination of dialysis and diffusion techniques. Since dialysis techniques are rarely used for the interaction of humic substances with surfactants study, it was necessary to optimize methods for determining of ionic surfactants (cationic Septonex and anionic sodium dodecylsulfate were selected as representatives) prior to begining of own experiments, using a method based on the color ion pair creation between a surfactant and a counter-charged dye, followed by this pair extraction into an organic solvent. Diffusion cell dialysis experiments were performed with cationic surfactant Septonex, which was expected to interact positively with humic acids relative to its charge. As humic acids representatives, the standards of these substances provided by the International Society for Humic Substances (IHSS) were selected, namely humic acids (IHSS HK) isolated from Leonardite (1S104H). One of this bachelor thesis aims was to verify the effect of carboxylic functional acids on reactivity and barrier abilities of humic acids. For this reason, these standards have been modified by the selective methylation of carboxyl groups which no longer participate in the interaction with surfactants. Already from the first experiments there was a noticeable decrease in the concentration of Septonex over time – it means its transition through the dialysis membrane to humic acids, which indicates a positive affinity of humic acids to Septonex. The extent of these interactions was assessed through the apparent interactions parameter app through which the assumption that IHSS HK reacted with Septonex more than their methylated form of MIHSS HK was verified.
Interaction of trimethylchitosan with Niaproof surfactant
Zbořilová, Hana ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This thesis is focused on the study of interaction of the polycation N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (TMC) with the anionic surfactant Niaproof® 4 in water and physiological saline solution. Due to the commercial unavailability of N,N,N-trimethylchitosan, the polymer was first synthesized from chitosan, followed by NMR and FTIR characterization. Before the study of the system polycation–anionic surfactant itself, the behavior of the anionic surfactant Niaproof® 4 in aqueous solution and physiological saline solution was explored. The micellization of the surfactant Niaproof® 4 and the aggregation of TMC–Niaproof® 4 system were observed by fluorescence spectroscopy using the fluorescence probe pyrene. Values of critical micelle and critical aggregation concentration were determined on the basis of measurements. It was confirmed that presence of the sodium chloride supports the micellization by increasing the ionic strength of the solution, which leads to decrease of CMC in physiological saline solution. The interaction of TMC–Niaproof® 4 occurs at lower concentration then CMC in both aqueous and physiological environments. Phase separation occurs at higher concentrations of the surfactant leading to stabilization of the system.
Hydrogels with incorporated enzymes
Geistová, Karolína ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of incorporation of enzymes into phase separated hydrogels. The aim of this work is to determine the enzyme activity in phase separated gels. Gels were prepared by the dry-way based on the interaction of negatively charged polyelectrolyte (hyaluronan) with positively charged surfactant (Septonex). Two enzymes, bromelain and collagenase, were incorporated into the hydrogels. To determine enzyme activity, the modified albumin protein with bound sulfanilamide group (azoalbumin) was used as a substrate. The enzyme activity of the enzyme itself, the enzyme activity affected by one of the two components of the system as well as the activity of the enzyme directly in the hydrogel was determined on UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The enzyme was found to be incorporated in the hydrogel. Furthermore, a significant effect of the positively charged surfactant on the enzyme activity was detected in phase-separated hydrogels.
The use of microcalorimetric methods in the study of the protective effects of chemical chaperons
Bohunská, Miroslava ; Pekař, Miloslav (referee) ; Krouská, Jitka (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of protective substances against denaturation processes, called chemical chaperones. The theoretical part describes the general characteristics of proteins, description of selected chaperones and methods of differential scanning calorimetry. In the experimental part, the protective effects of four potential protective agents - trehalose, guanidine hydrochloride, 3-hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyectoine - were investigated on the lysozyme model protein. The protective effects of the individual substances were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which determined the denaturation temperature of lysozyme in the presence of preservatives. Of all the chemical chaperones examined, the highest protective effect was observed with 3-hydroxybutyrate, which shifted the denaturation temperature to higher levels, and guanidine hydrochloride, which on the other hand lowered the denaturation temperature. At the same time, a reversible denaturation process was found in some substances, which was the most intense in GuHCl.
Adsorption of microbial cells on model biological surfaces
Mikušová, Janka ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Sedláček, Petr (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is creating sorption surface suitable for studying adsorption bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus, as representative probiotic bacterial strain. Included in the experimental part of this thesis was the process of creating sorption surface, according to the designed and especially optimized method. Optimization method comprised of preparing sorbent with sorption surface including mucin, on which was the bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus bound to, using specific interaction. UV-VIS spectrophotometry was utilized in the optimization of the sorption surface preparation for monitoring losses of mucin in solution that happens during the bondation on used substrate. Designed sorption surfaces were subjected to various physical-chemical analyses, which roles were displaying and characterisation of surface and confirming the presence of mucin. One of the major components, in the process of observing and characterization of changes in surface structure of the sorption surface, was infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation. Scanning electron microscopy was used for more detailed observation of the surface structure, created by adhesive interactions, which participate in probiotic bacteria adhesion. Finally, the created surfaces were used in pilot experiment, during which, the kinetics in growing bacterial culture with and without the presence of sorbent using microcalorimetry were observed. Designed sorbent appears to be a suitable mediator for detailed characterisation of bacterial adhesion, which is the first step in creating bacterial biofilm.
Stability evaluation of cosmetic dispersions using centrifugal analyser
Procházková, Michaela ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Pekař, Miloslav (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is focused on the evaluation of stability of cosmetics emulsions prepared from ingredients commonly available in laboratory and compared to the stability of commercially available body lotions. In the theoretical part cosmetics emulsion and methods used to stability measurements were described. Experimental part of this work at first describes the preparation of the emulsions. Furthermore, the stability of prepared emulsion was compared to commercially available ones using the centrifugal analyser LUMiSizer. In conclusion, the test results obtained from analyser LUMiSizer have showed the stability of the commercial emulsions and two prepared samples.
Influence of metal ions on microorganization of humic substances
Odehnalová, Nikola ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Klučáková, Martina (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is focused on the study of influence of metal ions on microorganization of humic substances. This issue was studied on a sample od fulvic acid. Solution of cocentration 1 g/l was prepared from this sample. This solution was ten titrate with solutions of copper, calcium and magnesium ions. For this purpose, methods of dinamic and electrophoretic light scattering were used. The results obtained by these methods show that the solution of fulvic acid is the most made by associated molecules of fulvic acid. The size of molecules became larger and larger during titrations. Copper was sorpted the most.
Catanionic vesicular systems
Repová, Romana ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with catanionic vesicles. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize these systems. The catanionic vesicles are composed of cationic (CTAB, CTAC, TTAB, DTAB) and anionic surfactants (SDS). The physical stability of the vesicles was enhanced with the addition of cationic surfactant DODAC.The catanionic vesicles were characterized by the measurement of the dynamic light scattering, zeta potencial and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The size and stability of the system were determined using dynamic light scattering. Difussion coefficient of the system was analyzed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
Bigels - Preparation and Characterization
Mušková, Alexandra ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with study of bigels, which are composed of hydrogel and oleogel. The aim of this work is to prepare and characterize bigels. Preparation of hydrogels was based on interaction between hyaluronan and cationic surfactant carbethopendecinium bromide. Oleogels were prepared by mixing a non-ionic surfactant (sorbitan monopalmitate) with sunflower oil. Individual bigels were prepared by mixing the various rations of hydrogel and oleogel, and were characterized using a fluorescence microscope and rheological measurements. Fluorescence observations were done on prepared samples using Nile Red, Perylene, HPTS, ATTO 655 and fluorescein. Rheological experiments show that pure oleogel is the strongest and most solid in comparison with bigels and hydrogels. The greater amount of oleogel in system is, the stronger bigel is.
Preparation and Characterisation of Polyelectrolyte Complexes in the System Dextran-Surfactant
Klímová, Eliška ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study on preparation and characterization of the polyelectrolyte complex formation in the dextran-surfactant system. The aim of the thesis was the investigation of the influence of the ionic strenght on the formation of the interactions in the studied system. For these purposes, components having opposite charges (DEAE-dextran hydrochloride and anion-active sodium dodecyl sulphate) were selected. For individual measurements mainly the methods of light scattering, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering in particular, have been used. In the thesis have been studied interactions and aggregation concentrations of individual components having the potential to form polyelectrolyte complexes. It was verified in all the studied samples, by measuring the intensity of scattered light and the size of Z-diameter of particles, that the increase in sizes of particles is caused by the formation of these complexes. There were also measured additional characteristicts of the system such as pH or conductivity. Their dependences provide comprehensive view on the formation of complexes in studied system and can be utilized for other measurements and possible future applications, especially for purposes in medical applications.

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