National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Epidemiology of sporadic forms of colorectal cancer in terms of preventions and the possibility of early diagnostic.
Schneiderová, Michaela ; Bencko, Vladimír (advisor) ; Krška, Zdeněk (referee) ; Hudečková, Henrieta (referee)
Thanks to the latest achievements in diagnostics, surgery and oncology, the overall perspective of colorectal cancer has changed significantly. There are no doubts that we deal with a complex disease, requiring multidisciplinary approach and assessment. Only this approach can enable patients to survive longer and maintain acceptable quality of there lives. Taking a long view over several decades, the steep rise in incidence of this malignancy was strongly alarming. It is partly a penalty for a prolongation of life expectance, since one of the risk factors is age. Knowing the way of life and dietary customs of our ancestors, one cannot deny that the change of lifestyle including dietary habits, as well as decrease of physical activity, obesity, stress, unsuitable thermal processing of food produced in bulk, consumption of immoderate amount of red meat, limited intake of raw vegetable and fruits, excessive intake of xenobiotics, such as medication or cosmetic products, excessive alcohol consumption, particularly beer, nicotinism, environmental pollutants, etc. contribute to the increase of this cancer incidence. All the above mentioned factors have led over the time to a formation and development of numerous so called civilization diseases, among which rates the colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite the...
Percutanous electrogastrography, principle and posibilities of clinical application in abdominal surgery
Fraško, Roman ; Krška, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Maršálek, Petr (referee) ; Szárszoi, Ondrej (referee)
Author of this dissertation presentation discuss in the begining definition and historical consequences of origin and consecutive evolution of the method of percutaneous electrogastrography. Intimately is described physiology, anatomy, embryology and function of gastrointestinal tract with special interest on construction and function of the stomach. Next to this author analyses current knowledge about location and function of the gastric pace setter. The technique of used perctutaneous electrogastrography equipmentt is described. In the second part results of original studies monitoring restoration of peristalsis in perioperative period at patients after open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic non-adjustable gastric banding are discussed. Furthermore results of EGG measurement of patients with mechanic, vascular and paralytic intestinal obstruction are presented in correlation with plasma levels of interleukin 1β, interleukin-6, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein. Key words: Percutanous electrogastrography, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic gastric bandage, inflammatory mediators, intestinal obstruction.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome in Critical Care
Kasperová, Jana ; Krška, Zdeněk (referee) ; Kvasnička, Jan (advisor)
We have conducted a retrospective study on disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) in critical care. The theoretical part of the study focusses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, ethiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and medical complications of the disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and describes the major therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study is to determine the etiology and outcome of the treatment of 29 patients hospitalized because of a DIC diagnosis in General University Hospital in Prague between January 2006 and December 2009, to analyse the changes of the laboratory test values over time, to see if there is any correlation between the chosen variables, and to assess confidence in the diagnosis of DIC according to the ISTH criteria for the diagnosis of DIC. The hypotheses that there will not be a significant difference between the gender, age and the laboratory values of DIC patients, that the mortality of septic patients with DIC will be a minimum of 50 %, and that the correlation between age, gender and the laboratory values in DIC patients will not be significant, were confirmed. On the contrary, the hypothese that the platelet count of all the DIC patients will be smaller or equal to 100 x 109 /l, prothrombin time (INR)...
Tissue and clinical response to prevention of pentasaccharide
Trča, Stanislav ; Krška, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Kittnar, Otomar (referee) ; Kvasnička, Jan (referee)
Administration of coagulation-active substances is one of the options to prevent thromboemboembolic disease (TED), including deep vein thrombosis and systemic response to stress entailed by an injury or a surgical procedure. Lately, a synthetic analogue of the heparin molekule - of its functionally active part - pentasaccharide (PS), has been developed, among others. Potential effects of different pharmacopreventive therapies of the deep vein thrombosis was studied in a group of 146 subjects, who suffered proximal femoral fractures and were operated in the Ist Surgical Clinic,VFN Hospital, during 2001-2006. The patients were randomized into 4 different anticoagulant groups (UFH, LMWH, PS short-term and PS long-term). Thromboembolic symptoms, selected postoperative complications and laboratory findings of selected blood count parameters, coagulation, active phase proteins and adhesion molecules, were monitored. The results indicate existing increased risk of the deep vein thrombosis and a lower rate of the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascade activation, suggesting a higher rate of the hemostatic status stability in the pentasaccharide groups, especially in the groups receiving the long-term pentasaccharide medication (over a month). Therefore, potential pentasaccharide protective effect preventing...

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