
Joint Models for Longitudinal and TimetoEvent Data
Vorlíčková, Jana ; Komárek, Arnošt (advisor) ; Omelka, Marek (referee)
Title: Joint Models for Longitudinal and TimetoEvent Data Author: Jana Vorlíčková Department: Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Arnošt Komárek, Ph.D., Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics Abstract: The joint model of longitudinal data and timetoevent data creates a framework to analyze longitudinal and survival outcomes simultaneously. A commonly used approach is an interconnection of the linear mixed effects model and the Cox model through a latent variable. Two special examples of this model are presented, namely, a joint model with shared random effects and a joint latent class model. In the thesis we focus on the joint latent class model. This model assumes an existence of latent classes in the population that we are not able to observe. Consequently, it is assumed that the longitudinal part and the survival part of the model are independent within one class. The main intention of this work is to transfer the model to the Bayesian framework and to discuss an estimation procedure of parameters using a Bayesian statistic. It consists of a definition of the model in the Bayesian framework, a discussion of prior distributions and the derivation of the full conditional distributions for all parameters of the model. The model's ability to...


Generalized Wilcoxon Test for Censored Data
Vařejková, Michaela ; Maciak, Matúš (advisor) ; Komárek, Arnošt (referee)
This paper deals with the generalized Wilcoxon test and its use for censored data. The introduction describes standard onesample and twosamples Wilco xon tests and their basic properties, censored data and methods of censoring. The main part of the paper is devoted to the introduction of the generalized Wilcoxon test and to its properties. First, a test for singlycensored data is de scribed; the description of a test for doubly censored data follows. The paper concludes with a simulations part in which statistical properties of the test are demonstrated. The first example compares the generalized test with the stan dard twosamples Wilcoxon test. The second example shows how the censoring rate affects the power and significance level of the generalized test. 1


Multiple testing problems
Turzová, Kristína ; Maciak, Matúš (advisor) ; Komárek, Arnošt (referee)
Statistical hypothesis testing is used while analyzing experimental data. This thesis is focused on multiple testing, which means testing many hypotheses simultaneously, and multiple testing problems occurring while running multiple hypotheses tests. These multiple testing problems are described and two errors, FWER (FamilyWise Error Rate) and FDR (False Discovery Rate), are defined. Selected multiple testing corrections are introduced and compared in detail using simulations regarding significance level and power. All of the discussed corrections control for the problem of multiple testing.


Zero inflated Poisson model
Veselý, Martin ; Komárek, Arnošt (advisor) ; Hlávka, Zdeněk (referee)
This paper deals with the zeroinflated Poisson distribution. First the Poisson model is defined and generalized to a zeroinflated model. The basic properties of this generalized model are derived. After wards the basics of the method of moments and the maximum likelihood method are described. Both of these are used to derive parameter estimates of such distribution. The feasibility of calculating the distribution of moment method estimates is analyzed. Then the asymptotic distribution of maximum likelihood estimates is derived and used to create confidence intervals. In the last chapter a numeric si mulation of the derived asymptotic properties is performed. Special attention is paid to situations where regularity conditions are not met. 1


Variance stabilizing transformations
Kuželová, Noemi ; Omelka, Marek (advisor) ; Komárek, Arnošt (referee)
Abstract. We often examine data whose sample mean converges to a normal distribution, but the variance generally depends on an unknown parameter. To get rid of this dependence, we can sometimes use the socalled variancestabilizing transformation method. Firstly, this thesis explains the method in detail and finds a general procedure to find suitable transformations. Then it will focus on data from Poisson and binomial distributions with unknown parameters. For these data, it finds transformations that stabilize (asymptotic) variance, and compares them with the "improved"transforms from the article Anscombe (1948). Most of the thesis is devoted to the shape of these transformations. Finally, we show in the Poisson distribution simulation that it is really appropriate to use this method and compare the derived transformation with its Anscombe version.


Sample Quantiles
Hrušková, Iveta ; Komárek, Arnošt (advisor) ; Nagy, Stanislav (referee)
If the distribution of random variable is uknown, we are not able to figure out the value of theoretical quantile. In case there is a random sample from this distribution, it is possible to estimate the value of theoretical quantile. This es timation is called sample quantile. This work is focused on nine frequently used varieties of sample quantile. They will be compared by means of characteristics that can be examined when speaking about sample quantile. All these varieties will be demonstrated on simple example. Finally, there will be shown that all these versions of sample quantile are consistent estimators of theoretical quan tile. The construction of confidence interval for theoretical quantile will be the topic of the final part of the work. 1


Statistical tests in stratified fourfold tables
Vook, Peter ; Komárek, Arnošt (advisor) ; Omelka, Marek (referee)
This paper deals with statistical tests in stratified fourfold tables. Several tests of conditional indepen dence are derived in it. A test of homogeneous association is also described. At first, contingency tables with arbitrary dimensions and multinomial distribution are defined. Then we continue with a description of fourfold tables and their binomial representation. In the next section we deal with an odds ratio and its asymptotic distribution. Formal definition of stratification and relevant terms follows afterwards. In the next chapter a derivation of test statistics for conditional independence tests including the wellknown CochranMantelHaenszel test based on a hypergeometric distribution can be found. This chapter also includes a description of BreslowDay test of homogeneous association. A numerical simulation of chosen tests is performed eventually. 1


Prediction error for mixed models
Šlampiak, Tomáš ; Komárek, Arnošt (advisor) ; Hlávka, Zdeněk (referee)
A Linear mixedeffects model (LME) is one of the possible tools for longitudinal or groupdependent data. This thesis deals with evaluating of prediction error in LME. Firstly, it is derived the mean square error of prediction (MSEP) by direct calculation. Then the covariance penalty method and crossvalidation is presented for evaluation of MSEP in LME. Further, it is shown how Akaike information criterion (AIC) can be used in mixedeffects models. Because of the model's properties two types of AIC are distinguished  marginal and conditional one. Subsequently, the procedures of AIC's calculation and its basic asymptotic properties are described. Finally, the thesis contains simulation study of behaviour of marginal and conditional AIC with the goal to choose the right variance structure of random effects. It turns out that the marginal criterion tends to select models with smaller number of random effects than conditional criterion.


Bayesian factor analysis
Vávra, Jan ; Komárek, Arnošt (advisor) ; Maciak, Matúš (referee)
Bayesian factor analysis  abstract Factor analysis is a method which enables highdimensional random vector of measurements to be approximated by linear combinations of much lower number of hidden factors. Classical estimation procedure of this model lies on the cho ice of the number of factors, the decomposition of variance matrix while keeping identification conditions satisfied and on the appropriate choice of rotation for better interpretation of the model. This model will be transferred into bayesian framework which offers the usage of prior information unlike the classical appro ach. The number of hidden factors can be considered as a random parameter and the dependency of each measurement on at most one factor can be forced by suitable specification of prior distribution. Estimates of model parameters are based on posterior distribution which is approximated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Bayesian approach solves the problem of selection of the num ber of factors, the model estimation and the ensuring of the identifiability and the interpretability at the same time. The ability to estimate the real number of hidden factors is tested in a simulation study. 1


Regression analysis of recurrent events
Rusá, Pavla ; Kulich, Michal (advisor) ; Komárek, Arnošt (referee)
V této práci se zabýváme metodami pro regresní analýzu výskytu opako vaných událostí, při které je třeba se vypořádat se závislostí čas· do události v rámci jednoho subjektu. V první části práce se zabýváme možným rozšířením Coxova modelu proporcionálního rizika, který se využívá při analýze cenzoro vaných dat, pro analýzu výskytu opakovaných událostí. Hlavní část práce je věnována odhadu parametr· v marginálních modelech a jejich asymptotickým vlastnostem. Následně se zabýváme i odhadem parametr· v marginálních mo delech pro mnohorozměrná cenzorovaná data. Vhodnost použití marginálních model· je zkoumána pomocí simulací. 1
