National Repository of Grey Literature 37 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Philosophy of Ordinary Language - its Decline and What to Do After It
Ivan, Michal ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Peregrin, Jaroslav (referee) ; Tomeček, Marek (referee)
The general topic of the thesis is the history of the Ordinary Language Philosophy. To be more precise, it deals with the critical arguments, which were raised against is. The thesis offers a short historical and sociological review of the Ordinary Language Philosophy. Critical analysis shows two things: 1) the main reason for the rejection was a different understanding of meaning (and consequences of such a understanding); 2) critics begged the question and already assumed the justification of these rejections in their arguments. The area of this criticism was: the paradigm case argument, the empirical nature of the statements of meaning produced by the Ordinary Language Philosophy, the structural elements of meaning and the political implications of the theory of meaning. The thesis criticizes the Ordinary Language Philosophy in those parts (and in such interpretations), where its understanding of meaning does not differ from the understanding of the critics and where they share common assumptions. On the other hand, the thesis argues for an interpretation, which avoids classical understanding of meaning in all its consequences. Finally, the thesis asks how the Ordinary Language Philosophy can be useful for contemporary debates.
Wittgenstein's Perspicuous Representations
Suchý, Jindřich ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
The aim of my thesis is to present Wittgenstein's late philosophical concept of perspicuous representations as a tool to "dissolve" philosophical problems. According to Wittgenstein, the problems of philosophy are to be understood as conceptual confusions, or misunderstandings. The role of philosophy consists of dissolving them by presenting connections between concepts. The philosophy is thus conceived as a therapy consisting both of the negative task (of dissolving philosophical problems) and the positive task (of clarifying the norms of representation). The thesis starts with description of Wittgenstein's concept of philosophical problem and of its methodological base. After that, the influence of the important figures such as Hertz, Boltzmann and Goethe is discussed with particular focus on the color-octahedron which represents the only Wittgenstein's systematically developed example of the perspicuous representation. Perspicuous representations are thus presented as an instrument used to represent the preconditions of human understanding of the world.
Epistemology of Late Wittgenstein
Rozen, David ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
The aim of this paper is to interpret epistemology of late Wittgenstein. For this purpose I will begin in the first part by introducing background and key moments of Wittgenstein's late conception of philosophy in the context of his early work, and so I will define the framework in which the following interpretation of his late epistemology will operate, which, as it turns out, can not be understood as the theory of knowledge in the traditional sense. Therefore, in the second part of my work, I will present Wittgenstein's late epistemology through two perspicuous representations - (1) perspicuous representation of grammar of expression 'to know' and (2) perspicuous representation of forms of life, as transcendental conditions of knowledge - in order we can see the connections between the different aspects of his late thinking and clarify the character of human knowledge, which turns out to be a social status anchored in the language, acting and mythology of particular culture.
The Rule-Following Paradox
Samčík, Jozef ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on a paradox which is mentioned by Wittgenstein in the §201 of the Philosophical Investigations. This paradox states: depending on interpretation, every course of action can be made out to accord or to conflict with a given rule. Kripke calls this problem the rule-following paradox and considers it to be the central problem of the Philosophical Investigations. Firstly I will explore a role that the term "rule" plays in a broader context of Wittgenstein's approach to language. I will argue that "obeying the rule" has a key role in understanding the concept of meaning. Next I will give an account of the rule-following paradox as it is presented by Kripke. Then I will describe impact of the paradox on various concepts of meaning. Lastly I will compare and evaluate Kripke's and McDowell's interpretations of the solution of the rule-following paradox offered by Wittgenstein. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
C. S. Peirce's conception of man and human subjectivity - The self as semiosis
Chudožilov, Andrej ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Švec, Ondřej (referee)
The question of relation between that what is conceived of as the internal subjective world of a human person and of that, which is thought of as external objective reality is a classic and unsolved problem of philosophy. Charles Sanders Peirce with his semiotic approach to the problem gives at least original, at best an illuminating answer. The goal of this paper is to describe in one place what it is that Peirce is trying to say on the topic in his extensive writing. The product of this work should be a comprehensive description of conception of man and human subjectivity as it can be found or developed from Peirce's philosophical system and the description of this conception's place in his worldview. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Rorty and Davidson on Truth
Šulcová, Kristýna ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
(in English): Richard Rorty and Donald Davidson are (at least verbally) in agreement on many essential topics in the philosophy of language, including their rebuttal of the correspondence theory of truth, the impossibility to define truth and the untenability of both the scheme-content distinction and the dichotomy between realism and anti-realism. Yet substantial differences remain, as represented especially by Davidson's insistence on the importance of objective truth and by Rorty's idiosyncratic pragmatism. The task of this thesis is to identify Rorty and Davidson's mutual differences more precisely and find out whether their philosophical projects might in the end prove compatible or if, on the contrary, their broad agreement is only apparent. With this end in view, the thesis traces the concept of truth in the hands of both philosophers with a special focus on Davidson's concept of objective truth. I conclude that Rorty systematically misinterprets Davidson as far as the latter concept is concerned. However, as both Davidson and Rorty remain hostile to treating truth as a normative concept, this need not mean that their views are completely incompatible.
Schopenhauer's Concept of Music
Bakovský, Pavel ; Pokorný, Martin (advisor) ; Kolman, Vojtěch (referee)
(in English): The topic of this work is aesthetics and metaphysics of art in writings of Arthur Schopenhauer with emphasis on his concept of music. Its main goal is to present Schopenhauer's aesthetics in broader context of his philosophy and to provide an account of whether his theory is a plausible explanation of art. Important topics include discussion of relationship between art and nature and analysis of Schopenhauer's approach to a concept of (platonic) Idea. This work tries to put forward an interpretation of Ideas based on their role in the order of nature, while sounding doubts about their function in art. It concludes, that while music according to Schopenhauer's account might provide us some important metaphysical insight, it is doubtful whether other arts provide us the kind of knowledge ascribed to them by Schopenhauer.
Dennett's Criticism of Qualia
Kubelková, Kateřina ; Hill, James (advisor) ; Kolman, Vojtěch (referee)
Topic of this thesis is Dennett's criticism of the philosophical notion of qualia. First, the notion of qualia and the meaning it acquires within philosophy are introduced. Then, four thought experiments are presented to serve as an argument in favor of existence of qualia along with Dennett's reaction to these thought experiments. After that, Dennett's criticism of qualia as immediately apprehensible, ineffable, intrinsic and private properties of conscious mental states is introduced while one of the most common objections to this criticism is emphasized - Dennett's conception of qualia is too narrow and we can preserve it in a moderate way. Subsequently, the thesis outlines such a modest concept - the concept of phenomenal consciousness. This thesis attempts to show that there is no place for phenomenal consciousness in Dennett's heterophenomenology and Multiple Drafts model and that Dennett is as skeptical about this term as he is about the notion of qualia. In the end, the thesis asks the question whether it is really necessary to give up the concept of phenomenal consciousness if we want to study consciousness scientifically - from the third-person point of view.
Late Wittgenstein's Metaphysics
Shchelkalin, Dmitry ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
Presented interpretation of the Wittgenstein's writings aims to clarify the particular aspects of his work, with an emphasis on the themes of language concepts and philosophical methods in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Philosophical Investigations, On Certainty and others. Plausibile understanding of Wittgenstein's positions within the classical philosophical and theoretical categories based on this analysis of the grammatical rules of language in their forms of life and of objective certainties and their application within the required method of philosophy shows the fact that normal categories are not completely compatible with Wittgenstein's positions, therefore, suggest a moderate realistic reading which will not neglect its semantics in a pragmatic overlap in non-structuralist approach. Ivestigating key Wittgenstein's ideas and methods of their presentation from early to late period allows us to eliminate improper interpretation - I mean first of all metaphysical and ontological connotations that bind to the early period. It turns out that these connotations can not be documented in the studied texts in any concrete and explicit theory, although his work has otherwise quite obvious continuity in the individual topics approaching. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Justificatory Status of Perceptual Beliefs
Sedláková, Jana ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Glombíček, Petr (referee)
The main subject of this essay is the problem of the relationship between sensation and perceptual beliefs in terms of their justification. Wilfrid Sellars and his Empiricism & The Philosophie of Mind are central for this essay. Sellars criticizes the theory of fundamentalism and sense data theory by pointing to the Myth of the Given. The perceptual beliefs could not be basic and self-justifying. Such a hierarchical structure is implausible, because we need a lot of other concepts for understanding and forming the perceptual beliefs. The justification has to be placed in the space of reason, when we are able to be responsible for our beliefs, to give reason, to understand the objections and react to them. This debate is not examined only in terms of an isolated, static subject. On the contrary, this subject is embedded to a dynamic social structure. Sellars' position contains three main elements: normativity, intersubjektivity and holism. All these elements will be more closely examined and placed in a broader context. Finally, I will present a critical view on Sellars' position on the basis of three questions: 1, to what extent is plausible the prior character of "It is" talk to "It looks" talk 2, to what extent can we talk about the non - inferential beliefs 3, to what extent is Sellars'...

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See also: similar author names
1 Kolman, Vladimír
2 Kolman, Vlastimil
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