National Repository of Grey Literature 51 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Accretion discs in the context of tidal disruption of stars in nuclei of galaxies
Štolc, Marcel ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Schee, Jan (referee)
Stars can be stretched and ripped apart by the super-massive black hole at the core of a galaxy. The remnant gaseous trail gradually circularizes in a ring of mass that spreads by the viscous forces into an accretion disc. In this thesis we have studied the spectral line profle time evolution of radiation refected by the accretion disc located around a super-massive black hole. We assume the central body to be a slowly rotating or non-rotating super-massive black hole with no charge, in the frst approximation represented by the Schwarzschild solution. In a sense of Shakura-Sunyaev standard accretion disc model with the kinematic viscosity parameter α ≈ 1 we allow the accretion disc evolution to be guided by the angular momentum transfer equation with the initial mass ring located at the tidal radius being the product of tidal disruption of a star passing by a super-massive black hole. During the simulations we keep varying the mass of the central body while we keep the mass and the radius of the star constant (M = 1M⊙ and R = 1R⊙), i.e. taking into account the solar-type stars only. We defer the prospects of the full analysis involving spin (and charge) of the central body for the future study as it will be necessary to use the equations for the redshift factor and the accretion disc evolution...
Polarization properties of bow shock sources close to the Galactic centre
Zajaček, M. ; Karas, Vladimír ; Hosseini, E. ; Eckart, A. ; Shahzamanian, B. ; Valencia-S, M. ; Peissker, F. ; Busch, G. ; Britzen, S. ; Zensus, J. A.
Several bow shock sources were detected and resolved in the innermost parsec from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic centre. They show several distinct characteristics, including an excess towards mid-infrared wavelengths and a significant linear polarization as well as a characteristic prolonged bow-shock shape. These features give hints about the presence of a non-spherical dusty envelope generated\nby the bow shock. The Dusty S-cluster Object (also denoted as G2) shows similar characteristics and it is a candidate for the closest bow shock with a detected proper motion in the vicinity of Sgr A*, with the pericentre distance of only approx. 2000 Schwarzschild radii. However, in the continuum emission it is a point-like source and hence we use Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling to reveal its possible three-dimensional structure. Alongside the spectral energy distribution, the detection of polarized continuum emission in the near-infrared Ks-band (2.2 micrometers) puts additional constraints on the geometry of the source.
Analytical solution for charged fluid pressure profiles - circulation in combined electromagnetic field
Kovář, J. ; Slaný, P. ; Stuchlík, Z. ; Karas, Vladimír ; Trova, A.
We introduce a general transformation leading to an integral form of pressure equations characterizing equilibrium configurations of charged perfect fluid circling in strong gravitational and combined electromagnetic fields. The transformation generalizes our recent analytical treatment applicable to electric or magnetic fields treated separately along with the gravitational one. As an example, we present a particular solution for a fluid circling close to a charged rotating black hole immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field.
Modelling the bow–shock evolution along the DSO/G2 orbit in the Galactic centre
Štofanová, L. ; Zajaček, M. ; Kunneriath, D. ; Eckart, A. ; Karas, Vladimír
A radially directed flow of gaseous environment from a supermassive black hole affects the evolution of a bow–shock that develops along the orbit of an object passing through the pericentre. The bow–shock exhibits asymmetry between the approaching and receding phases, as can be seen in calculations of the bow-shock size, the velocity profile along the shocked layer, and the surface density of the bow–shock,\nand by emission-measure maps. We discuss these effects in the context of the recent pericentre transit of DSO/G2 near Sagittarius A*.
Truncation of AGN jets by their interaction with a passing star cluster
Araudo, Anabella ; Karas, Vladimír
We study the interaction of a cluster of massive stars with AGN jets as a continuous process that must occur repetitively in galactic nuclei and a promising mechanism that can trigger production of high–energy particles.
Coherent dusty and gaseous structures near the Galactic center
Štofanová, Lýdia ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kovář, Jiří (referee)
Sagittarius A*, a compact source in the centre of the Milky Way, is the nearest supermassive black hole (SMBH) in our cosmic neighbourhood, where various astrophysical processes take place. In consequence, variety of structures emerge near the Galactic centre and bow shocks that are closely studied in this work represent an example of them. The introductory part of this thesis is a brief review of the history of the Galactic centre research and its discovery in radio wavelengths. The main body of the thesis is focused on a simplified model of the bow- shock structures that are generated by stars moving supersonically with respect to the ambient medium. We discuss how these structures vary along the orbit. To this end, we consider four different models: (a) without the presence of any gaseous medium emerging from or accreting onto the SMBH, (b) taking an outflow from the SMBH into account, (c) the case of an inflow onto the SMBH, and finally (d) the combined model involving both an outflow and an inflow at the same time. We discuss symmetries of each model (or lack of them) and we find that the model considering the ambient medium at rest appears symmetrical with respect to the pericentre passage. The combined model manifests itself as the most asymmetrical one of them all. We show profiles for the...
Astrophysical processes near a galactic centre
Hamerský, Jaroslav ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kulhánek, Petr (referee) ; Janiuk, Agnieszka (referee)
An accretion torus is an important astrophysical phenomenon which is be- lieved to account for various features of mass inflow and release of radiation on diverse scales near stellar-mass as well as supermassive black holes. When the stationary torus is perturbed it starts to oscillate and once some part of the torus overflows the closed equipotential surface, defined by the stationary solution, this material is accreted or ejected. These oscillations reveal both spacetime properties and the intrinsic characteristics of the torus model. We study the oscillation and accretion properties of geometrically thick accretion tori using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Assuming axial symmetry these simulations are restricted to 2-D approximation. We discuss the impact of the presence of the large scale magnetic field and the profile of the specific angular momentum on the oscillation properties and on the accretion flow motion. 1
Neutron stars near a galactic centre
Zajaček, Michal ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Šubr, Ladislav (referee)
In this work we study the processes near the Galactic centre, which serves as a paradigm for low- luminosity galactic nuclei. The introductory part of the thesis is a brief review on the radio source Sagittarius A* in the Galactic centre and on its immediate surroundings. The main part of the thesis focuses on the hypothetical population of neutron stars that should be present in large numbers in this region. We analyse the predictions concerning the encounters of this observationally unexplored population with the ambient interstellar medium and we discuss the distribution of their interaction modes with respect to the parameters of the system. We find out that this distribution is strongly dependent on the density of the ambient medium, whereas only weakly dependent on its temperature. The effect of the prolongation of rotational period is negligible on the time-scale of about ten thousand years. In the second part, we predict the evolution of the high-eccentricity passages of clouds and dust- enshrouded stars (with pericentre distances at about 1000 Schwarzschild radii from the black hole). In all studied cases a major part of the matter is diverted from the original path. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Astrofyzikální procesy v blízkosti kompaktních objektů
Sochora, Vjačeslav ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Schee, Jan (referee) ; Semerák, Oldřich (referee)
Title: Astrophysical processes near compact objects: studying extremal en- ergy shifts from accretion rings Author: Vjačeslav Sochora Department: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Astronomical In- stitute Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Vladimír Karas, DrSc.; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Astronomical Institute Abstract: The X-ray emission from inner regions of an accretion disk around black holes provides wealth of information about matter in extreme con- ditions. A spectral profile of radiation from a narrow circular ring has a characteristic double-horn profile. Red and blue peaks of the profile are close to the extremal values of the energy shift. We describe a useful approach to calculate the extremal energy shifts in the regime of strong gravity. We dis- cuss if the radial structure of the disk emission could be reconstructed using extremal energy shifts of the individual rings. For this purpose, we simulate artificial data from a bright active galactic nucleus and show that the re- quired sensitivity and energy resolution can be reached with the proposed LOFT mission. Keywords: black hole physics, accretion disks, galactic nuclei
Transition from regular to chaotic motion in black hole magnetospheres
Kopáček, Ondřej ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kulhánek, Petr (referee) ; Rezzolla, Luciano (referee)
Cosmic black holes can act as agents of particle acceleration. We study properties of a system consisting of a rotating black hole immersed in a large-scale organized magnetic field. Electrically charged particles in the immediate neighborhood of the horizon are influenced by strong gravity acting together with magnetic and induced electric components. We relax several constraints which were often imposed in previous works: the magnetic field does not have to share a common symmetry axis with the spin of the black hole but they can be inclined with respect to each other, thus violating the axial symmetry. Also, the black hole does not have to remain at rest but it can instead perform fast translational motion together with rotation. We demonstrate that the generalization brings new effects. Starting from uniform electro-vacuum fields in the curved spacetime, we find separatrices and identify magnetic neutral points forming in certain circumstances. We suggest that these structures can represent signatures of magnetic reconnection triggered by frame-dragging effects in the ergosphere. We further investigate the motion of charged particles in these black hole magnetospheres. We concentrate on the transition from the regular motion to chaos, and in this context we explore the characteristics of chaos in...

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1 KARAS, Václav
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