National Repository of Grey Literature 10 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Perivascular adipose tissue in health and disease
Pasáková, Kateřina ; Králová Lesná, Ivana (advisor) ; Janovská, Petra (referee)
Adipose tissue is the biggest endocrine organ in a human body. Its function and composition have been intensively studied due to the rising number of overweight people. The cells of adipose tissue are called adipocytes. The substances that are produced by them are termed adipokines - cytokines secreted by adipocytes. It is possible to distinguish several types of adipose tissue based on its composition - white, brown and transient beige, or based on its location - visceral, subcutaneous and perivascular. Perivascular adipose tissue surrounds most of the blood vessels. Its effect can be inflammatory or anti-inflammatory and it is involved in the process of regulation of vascular tone. Pathology of perivascular adipose tissue can lead to a development of diseases which can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system, and thus it may represent one of the main causes of death in the Western world.
Peptides regulating food intake and their lipidized analogs for possible treatment of obesity and cachexia
Buková, Anna-Marie ; Maletínská, Lenka (advisor) ; Janovská, Petra (referee)
In spite of good living conditions, the number of people in the state where the total food intake or individual nutrients is insufficient, unnecessary or unbalanced has increased in recent years. In case of superfluous food intake, amount of fat tissue increases and overweight and obesity appear, which is associated with an increased risk of type 2 of diabetes, cardiovascular disease or certain types of cancer. Insufficient intake of food may, for example, result in the function of the immune system, resulting in an increased risk of infection or poor wound healing. In addition to primary malnutrition, we can see malnutrition as the secondary manifestation of another illness. The state of weight loss and malnutrition caused by another disease is called cachexia. This is a serious complication of primary therapies. At present, in addition to established approaches to the treatment of these diseases, some studies address treatment options using compounds that influence the regulation of food intake. One group of these compounds is peptides able to reduce food intake (anorexigenic peptides) or increase it (orexigenic peptides). To these natural substances in the organism are also sought analogs with properties more favorable for use in practice. One of the possibilities are lipidized analogs, among...
Role of PGC-1 coactivators in the regulation of mitochondrial function in adipose tissue
Funda, Jiří ; Janovská, Petra (advisor) ; Mlejnek, Petr (referee)
Metabolic pathways in adipose tissue affect the whole-body energy homeostasis. De novo lipogenesis and futile metabolic cycling based on lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification which is engaged in regulation of fatty acid level in bloodstream are occuring there. These processes are partly regulated by nuclear receptor PPARγ. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in adipocytes are controlled by interacting of PPARγ with transcriptional coactivators PGC-1α and PGC-1β. The aims of this thesis were to find out whether PGC-1β is connected with regulation of futile cycling and de novo lipogenesis in white adipose tissue and also how specific inactivation of PGC-1β gene in adipose tissue affects phenotype of mice during short-term cold exposure or treatment based on high fat diet enriched by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with mild calorie restriction. The results show that inactivation of PGC-1β probably does not affect futile cycling based on lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification. In mice with PGC-1β ablation compensation in weight of brown adipose tissue was observed as well as increase in the gene expresion of nuclear receptors PPAR, transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and UCP1 during cold exposure. Even though the inactivation of PGC-1β in brown adipose tissue...
The metabolism of an adipose tissue in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity: the role of anatomical localization of the tissue and diet composition
Krsková, Kateřina ; Janovská, Petra (advisor) ; Behuliak, Michal (referee)
Regulation of the flow of fatty acids (FA) by futile cycle (TAG/FA cycle) in white adipose tissue (WAT) is an important mechanism of controlling metabolism of FA and therefore its regulation is in the interest of research as a possible therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. The study of the murine model suggests that the treatment of the n-3 PUFA with mild caloric restriction (CR) probably induces the TAG/FA cycle mainly in epididymal depot. It also reduces inflammation in WAT and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We focused on monitoring the gene expression encoding key enzymes of the TAG/FA cycle (PEPCK, ATGL, HSL, DGAT1 and DGAT2) in dorzolumbar (DL), gonadal (GON) and mesenteric (MEZ) depot in a murine model C57BL/6 using qPCR. We were interested in the influence of the composition of fats in the diet, the influence of administration of n-3 PUFA with combination of 10% CR and the difference of gene expression among depots of WAT. The results indicate that the supplementation of high-fat diet with n-3 PUFA contributes mainly to reduction of gene expression for DGAT2 and the combination of n-3 PUFA and CR increases expression of genes influencing the TAG/FA cycle. In MEZ unlike GON and DL fat depot were no significant differences in gene expression, while the different...
Maturation of AMPK in skeletal muscle during early postnatal development
Hansíková, Jana ; Janovská, Petra (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important metabolic sensor in eukaryotic organisms and it plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis, at both the cells and the whole organism. AMPK controls glucose and lipid metabolism by direct stimulation of enzymes or by long term stimulation of the gene expression of energy metabolism. Skeletal muscles significantly contribute to the total body weight and metabolic rate and to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Due to the ability of the muscle to increase energy expenditure to 95% of whole-body energy expenditure, could be the proper development and programming of metabolism in the early postnatal period crucial for the further development of the organism in adulthood. Early postnatal development leads to substantial changes in energy requirements of the body and this suggests the significant involvement of AMPK in this period. The aim of this thesis was to study the activity and expression of isoforms of the catalytic subunit of AMPK in skeletal muscle during early postnatal development of both mouse strains A/J and C57BL/6 that differ in the development of diet-induced obesity. The next task was to analyze the expression of selected genes involved in energy metabolism - GLUT4, PGC-1α and UCP3 that AMPK regulates. It was found that the...
Effect of ectopic synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 in white adipose tissue on whole-body metabolism in mice
Janovská, Petra ; Kopecký, Jan (advisor) ; Drahota, Zdeněk (referee) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
The prevention and treatment of obesity is a major problem of health care systems in affluent societies. Metabolism of adipose tissue belongs to the therapeutical targets, since accumulation of adipose tissue is the basis of obesity development. Experiments using transgenic mice with ectopic expression of brown- fat uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in white adipose tissue (WAT), verified a concept that obesity could be ameliorated by increasing energy expenditure in WAT. The goal of the experiments of this PhD Thesis was to characterize in detail the phenotype of this unique animal model of obesity resistance. We have shown that mitochondrial uncoupling in WAT resulted in increased oxidation of fatty acids (FA), in face of decreased lipogenesis and induced mitochondrial biogenesis in this tissue. In further studies, we aimed to modulate propensity to obesity be increasing FA oxidation in WAT in response to physiological stimuli. This could be accomplished in response to the combination treatment using n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and mild calorie restriction in mice fed high-fat diet. Synergistic induction of mitochondrial oxidative capacity and lipid catabolism in epididymal WAT was associated with suppression of low-grade inflammation of WAT, which is typical for obesity. The improvement of lipid...
Stress of endoplasmic reticulum and its role for the development of adipose tissue inflammation
Zemánková, Kateřina ; Rossmeislová, Lenka (advisor) ; Janovská, Petra (referee)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle responsible for folding of proteins that are then transported to the various places in the cell or secreted. It is also crucial for the synthesis of triglycerides. Metabolic imbalance leads to ER stress and consequently triggers signaling pathway, which is called unfolded-protein response (UPR). The aim of this pathway is to alleviate ER stress, restore natural homeostasis and prevent death of cell. At the same time however, it activates stress kinases and other factors that may perturb insulin signaling and increase expression of proinflammatory cytokines. These signs are characteristic for human obesity, which is associated with reduced tissue's sensitivity to insulin and is considered as a disease with low level of inflammation. Recent studies have suggested that the source of proinflammatory cytokines in obesity are stressed adipocytes and macrophage infiltrated into adipose tissue. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that stress of endoplasmic reticulum is significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. Weight loss associated with reduction of adipose tissue mass decreases stress while lowers both, the production of proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistence. This work aims to collect and discuss these new findings, which...
Importance of AMP-activated protein kinase in the regulation of energy metabolism of mammals
Hansíková, Jana ; Janovská, Petra (advisor) ; Žurmanová, Jitka (referee)
Enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serin/threonin protein kinase, its main role is in energy regulation at both on the cellular and whole body levels. As a stress sensor controls the oxidation of fatty acid, transport and uptake of glucose uptake into cell, gluconeogenesis and other metabolic pathway in tissue such as liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue including hypothalamic central regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Regulation of AMPK on whole-body level is coordinated by a variety of hormones (adipokines) secreted by adipose tissue. Leptin is one of key adipokines associated with the efect of AMPK . Effects of leptin are linked to both programming the metabolism in the perinatal period and with important regulations in adult metabolism. Data about development of AMPK in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues in the perinatal period are still rare. Considering to the key role of AMPK in mediation of central regulation of leptin in the hypothalamus and metabolic effects of leptin in muscle, further research to expand knowledge in this area is required.
Analysis of novel members of FAHFA lipid class derived from omega 3-PUFA by LC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS/MS
Rombaldová, Martina ; Kuda, Ondřej ; Březinová, Marie ; Slavíková, Barbora ; Pošta, Martin ; Beier, Petr ; Janovská, Petra ; Veleba, J. ; Kopecký Jr., J. ; Kudová, Eva ; Pelikánová, T. ; Kopecký, Jan
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obesity, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of marine origin play an important role in resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using LC-MS/MS method, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), which were present in murine and human serum and WAT after omega-3 PUFA supplementation in diet. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) termed 9-DHAHLA and 13-DHAHLA, and were synthesized in WAT. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed toomega-3 PUFA, in both miceandhumans.
Examination of quality management system impact on competitive advantage in meat industry company
The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the quality management system of the company. On the basis of acquired information I carried out a quality management analysis of the company. On the basis of the results I carried out a new strategy for the company. I prefer implementation integrated management system which supersedes EN ISO 9001:2001, safety management system according to OHSAS 18001:1999 and environmental management system according to ISO 14001:2004. This part of my thesis includes an impact on competitive advantage.

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1 Janovská, Pavlína
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