National Repository of Grey Literature 58 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Poisonings with macromycetes in period 2001-2016
Komínková, Lucie ; Jahodář, Luděk (advisor) ; Karlíčková, Jana (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis was to process an overview of previously known knowledge about acute mushroom poisonings. Thesis draws mainly from foreign literature. Provides basic information about mushrooms, their toxins and syndromes that cause. Beside the general information, one part of the thesis is devoted to the cases and studies from around the world. They describe individual clinical cases of mushroom poisoning or deal with their epidemiological situation mostly between the years 2001 - 2016. Obtained information is processed into overview tables. Thesis is particularly focused on the situation of macromycete poisonings in the Czech Republic and contains data from specialised facilities. The most intoxications occurs after ingestion of the edible fungi species. The most common intoxications by mushrooms containing toxins are after ingestion A. phalloides, A. pantherina and Psilocybe. The most frequent reported symptoms are gastrointestinal. According to the severity, mushroom poisonings are classified as less dangerous with onset of symptoms within 6 hours and life-threatening with the onset of symptoms after more than 6 hours. Mushroom poisonings should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal problems. Key words: macromycetes, mushroom poisonings, mushroom...
Analysis of Andrographis leaves extract
Tonarová, Marta ; Jahodář, Luděk (advisor) ; Macáková, Kateřina (referee)
1 CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAGUE FACULTY OF PHARMACY IN HRADEC KRÁLOVÉ DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY AND ECOLOGY Analysis of Andrographis leaves extract. Marta Tonarová, 2010 Abstract: The analysis of the extract of leaves Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) was accomplished. The commercial ethanol extract with the contents of andrographolides not higher than 10 % represented the tested material. In case of using the standard andrographolide, the thin layer chromatography has proved its very low amount in the extract only, in spite of the fact that studying literature consideres its contents as majority. The identity of the standard was verified by mesuring its NMR spectrums, which refers to the informations in the studying literature. Contents of andrographolides was fixed by the high performance liquid chromatography extanded to the standard, with using of isocratic elution and spectrophotometric detection by the wave lenght 223 nm. Total contents of the andrographolides in the extract was 12,23 % and consequently it refers to the production protocol. The main component in the contents of the extract was isolated by using preparative TLC. On the basis of fixing the NMR spectrums and their confrontation with the studying literature it was determined as 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide.
Analysis of Ginger root extract. I.
Bačová, Barbora ; Jahodář, Luděk (advisor) ; Karlíčková, Jana (referee)
Bačová, B.: Analýza zázvorového extraktu. I. [Diplomová práce] Hradec Králové 2010, Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Farmaceutická fakulta. Komerční extrakt ze Zingiber officinale 8 : 1 byl analyzován na obsah gingerolu, vody a dalších látek. Byly použity chromatografické postupy včetně TLC a HPLC. Metodou hodnocení byly postupy uvedené v US Pharmacopeia 1996 a ČL 2009. Byla potvrzena přítomnost 6-gingerolu v množství 1,17%, obsah vody 89,18% a prokázané další látky podobné gingerolům.
Knowledge of less common isoflavonoids in plants
Cymbál, Martin ; Karlíčková, Jana (advisor) ; Jahodář, Luděk (referee)
Charles University Pharmaceutical Faculty in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany Candidate: Martin Cymbál, DiS. Supervisor: PharmDr. Jana Karlíčková, Ph.D. Bachelor thesis 2016/2017: Knowledge of less common isoflavonoids in plants, pp. 78. Isoflavonoids are a group of 3-phenylchromen-4-one phenol flavonoids, many of which are biologically active. Isoflavonoids and their derivatives are sometimes referred to as phytoestrogens, because their structure and effect are similar to steroid hormones and are fed to estrogen receptors in the body. Isoflavonoids play an important role in human food as a health promoting plant substance. Isoflavonoids and their related compounds are used in many dietary supplements and only in one registered phytopharmac (Menofem). Recently, some natural isoflavones have been identified as toxins, eg. biliatrasone, which can cause biliary atresia if infants are exposed to this substance. However, with years of research and finding of new isoflavonoids together with understanding of their mechanism of action and their structure they have gained importance. Over the last ten years isoflavonoids have been subject to extensive research and analysis mainly because of their countless effects that were confirmed by studies. Many other in vitro and in vivo experiments need to be...
Analysis of Psilocybe constituents II.
Gunčagová, Andrea ; Jahodář, Luděk (advisor) ; Jáč, Pavel (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of pharmaceutical botany and ecology Candidate: Bc. Andrea Gunčagová Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Luděk Jahodář, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: The analysis of Psilocybe constituents II. The aim of this thesis was to analyse Psilocybe constituents, to plot the places of occurence of chosen Psilocybe brands and also to determinate their water content. The thesis deals with 22 samples that originate in 10 habitats in Slovakia and Moravian- Silesian region. Accuracy of brand specification was supervised by a member of mycological society. Psilocybe serbica var. bohemica was identified in 2, whereas Psilocybe semilanceata in 8 habitats. The average content of H20 in samples was 87,07 % ± 10,91 %. All of the samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS (LIT) method. The qualitative analysis of determinated substances showed the presence of psilocine (PSC) and psilocybine (PSB) in all samples. The results of quantitative analysis (expressed in percentage of dry matter) are similar in particular habitats, but there is a significant difference between two specific brands of Psilocybe mushrooms. The content of determinated alkaloids in P. bohemica was: PSC 0,001-0,011 % a PSB 0,01-0,07%. P. semilanceata contained 0,0005 - 0,011 % PSC a 0,074 - 0,763% PSB....
Evaluation of biological activity using Artemia salina
Kvapilová, Radka ; Vytlačilová, Jitka (advisor) ; Jahodář, Luděk (referee) ; Macáková, Kateřina (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Author: Mgr. Radka Kvapilová Supervisor: RNDr. Jitka Vytlačilová, Ph.D. Title of rigorous thesis: EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY USING ARTEMIA SALINA Traditional Chinese medicine originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years. TCM therapist use herbal medicines and body practices. Nowadays, Chinese medicine continues to develop and is used by millions of people around the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of these products - Epimedii herba, Salviae miltiorrhizae radix, Zanthoxyli fructus pericarpium, Nelumbinis folium a Gardeniae fructus. The experiment was conducted on organism Artemia salina. These experiments were evaluated after the 24 hours and the LC50 values were calculated. Toxicity declined in order: Zanthoxyli fructus pericarpium > Gardeniae fructus > Nelumbinis folium > Epimedii herba > Salviae miltiorrhizae radix. Key words: Zanthoxyli fructus pericarpium, Gardeniae fructus, Nelumbinis folium, Epimedii herba, Salviae miltiorrhizae radix, Artemia salina.
Antiprotozoal activity of natural substances
Nechanická, Lenka ; Vytlačilová, Jitka (advisor) ; Jahodář, Luděk (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Author: Lenka Nechanická Supervisor: RNDr. Jitka Vytlačilová, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Antiprotozoal activity of natural substances The discovery of new active substances and plants with a potential antiprotozoal effect nowadays is the aim of many studies and is required for obtaining more active drugs in a number of protozoal disease. In this study was investigated antiprotozoal activity of extracts obtained from various plant parts Salvia officinalis, Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum, Evodia rutaecarpa, Coptis chinensis, Zanthoxylum nitidum and Ziziphus jujuba. Effect of the tested extracts was evaluated in a typical unicellular organism Tetrahymena thermophila using MTT method. From the values obtained the percent inhibition was detected Tetrahymena thermophila and for each extract value calculated median inhibitory concentrations IC50. Of the extracts tested had the greatest antiprotozoal activity of the extract of C. chinensis, further extracts activity decreases in the order C. chinensis > Z. nitidum > Z. jujuba > S. officinalis > E. rutaecarpa > A. graveolens L. var. rapaceum Key words: antiprotozoal activity, Tetrahymena thermophila, cytotoxicity, natural substances
Metabolism of isoflavonoids in human organism
Šramarová, Pavlína ; Karlíčková, Jana (advisor) ; Jahodář, Luděk (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Candidate: Bc. Pavlína Šramarová Diploma thesis supervisor: PharmDr. Jana Karlíčková, Ph.D. Title of thesis 2015/2016: Metabolism of isoflavonoids in human organism, pp. 54 Isoflavonoids are subgroup of flavonoids, belonging to the phytoestrogenic compounds. These compounds occur especially in leguminous, mainly in soya (Glycine max (L.) Merr). They have a positive impact on human health, especially for its estrogenic effects, due to which are applied in the fight against osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and for moderation of menopausal symptoms. Furthermore they exhibit antibacterial activity and protect cells against damage of DNA. This thesis deals with their metabolism and action in human and animal organism, also with the influence of intestinal microflora to transform these isoflavonoids into metabolites, as well as the effects of these metabolites. There are also mentioned these isoflavonoids: daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, formononetin, calycosin, prunetin, puerarin, cladrin, tectorigenin and kakkalid. Key words: isoflavonoids, metabolism, human organism
Analysis of Psilocybe constituents I.
Kobrlová, Tereza ; Jahodář, Luděk (advisor) ; Jáč, Pavel (referee)
The goal of this work was to determine the contents of two main alkaloid types of Psilocybe species occurring in the Czech Republic. Correct identification of species was checked by mycology specialist. Qualitative and quantitative determination of substances contained in three collected species of the genus Psilocybe was carried out by LC-MSn (LIT). Samples were mainly collected in the north and northeast Bohemia. Three species of Psilocybe were found. The most found species were P. serbica var. bohemica then P. semilanceata and only one deposit of P. serbica var. arcana. Total of 35 deposits within eighteen locations. From qualitative point of view, the two main alkaloids were confirmed in all samples. Quantitative results for content of psilocin and psilocybin (in this order) are: P. bohemica 0,005 - 0,152 %, 0,000 - 0,048 %; P. semilanceata 0,087 - 0,337 %, 0,000 - 0,005 %; P. arcana 0,018 - 0,031 %, 0,003 - 0,022 %. Results in all locations are similar and rather dependent on the fungi type. Our results are based on dry mass. This work brought fundamental knowledge for future optimisation of analytical methods and assumptions for the project extension of other locations and determination of content of minority substances alongside the content of majority substances.

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