
Precipitation nowcasting for the warm part of the year
Mejsnar, Jan ; Sokol, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (referee) ; Žák, Michal (referee)
Current precipitation nowcasting systems primarily use the extrapolation of observed radar reflectivity. I used the extrapolation and studied limits of the forecast using the concept of the decorrelation time (DCT). I used data from two radars covering the territory of the Czech Republic from warm parts of four years and calculated DCT in dependence on several selected conditions describing the state of the atmosphere. I found that the mean DCT for the extrapolation is 45.4 minutes. On average the increase of the DCT in comparison when the persistence forecast is employed is 13.4 minutes. However, in dependence on current conditions the DCT may increase or decrease in more than 40 %. I also explored time evolution of the DCT during two storm events. I found that the DCT may significantly change in time, which is the consequence of changing character of the atmosphere during the storm development.


Urban Ventilation Dependence on Geometric Configuration
Kukačka, Libor ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Carpentieri, Matteo (referee) ; Uruba, Václav (referee)
Title: Urban Ventilation Dependence on Geometric Configuration Author: RNDr. Ing. Libor Kukačka Department: Department of Atmospheric Physics Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Zbyněk Jaňour, DrSc., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Thermomechanics, v. v. i. Abstract: The main goal of the thesis is to investigate the impact of urban geometry on the urban ventilation using windtunnel modelling. To measure the pollutant transport, both advective and turbulent, within complex urban geometries with a high temporal resolution a special measurement method was developed. At first, the pollution of a simplified urban area was simulated by a groundlevel point source and the ventilation of the intersection with respect to four wind directions was studied. Later, the pollution of other simplified and complex urban areas was simulated by a groundlevel line source and the ventilation of three different street canyons with respect to wind direction perpendicular and oblique to their alongcanyon axis was investigated. The clear impact of urban complexity and wind direction on street canyon ventilation is demonstrated at lateral and top openings of all investigated canyons and the intersection. Whilst the dominance of the pollutant advection is demonstrated at the eaves of pitched roofs, at the roof ridges...


Impact of Turbulence Generators on Turbulent Characteristics and Structures
Kellnerová, Radka ; Jurčáková, Klára ; Jaňour, Zbyněk
The turbulent generators are routinely used to produce very turbulent flows. Special type of vertically slenderize spires are applied to enhance turbulent diffusion from the surface upwards in order to increase the boundary layer depth. This paper studies the influence of variable upstream distance of generators on formation of both vortical and nonvortical organized structures within a test section. The 2component 2dimensional timeresolved particle image velocimetry measurement of the flow was performed in the wind channel with very rough surface. Intermittent flow dynamics was evaluated by means of higher order moments, vorticity, quadrant and wavelet analysis. The downstream evolution of the flow suggests that equilibrium between roughness and spiresproduced turbulence was reached at the distance of 7 spires height.\n


Windtunnel Modelling of Turbulent Flow Inside the Street Canyon
Kellnerová, Radka ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Brechler, Josef (referee) ; Jonáš, Pavel (referee)
Turbulent flow inside a street canyon was investigated in an open circuit wind tunnel and in a blowdown wind channel. Two geometries were used for comparison purposes: buildings with pitched roofs and with flat roofs. Both generate the flow of a different category, so the induced ventilation regimes are fundamentally different. Quadrant, Fourier and Wavelet analysis, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and vortex detection methods are used to identify coherent structures in the flow and establish their impact on the ventilation of pollution. Two types of the organised motions are detected: the compact areas of sweep and ejection with the scale comparable to the size of building and the small vortices generated in the shear layer behind the building roof. POD identifies the most dominant modes with high coherency in the flow and evaluates the relative contributions of each mode to the overall kinetic energy of turbulence. Rigorous analysis of the correctness of the physical interpretation for such a decomposition is carried out. Wavelet analysis is applied to the timeseries of the POD expansion coefficients in order to reveal control mechanism of the dynamics of the modes. Vorticity, calculated from the original velocity data, is decomposed by POD as well. Finally, the correlation between the vorticity...


Mathematical modelling of airflow in geometrically complicated areas
Fuka, Vladimír ; Brechler, Josef (advisor) ; Fürst, Jiří (referee) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (referee)
The Charles University Largeeddy Microscale Model (CLMM) and its application are presented. It is a numerical model for simulation of turbulent flow and dispersion in the planetary boundary layer. CLMM solves the incompressible NavierStokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation and describes turbulence using the large eddy simulation. Three applications of the model are presented. In the first case, the model is applied to the stable boundary layer over a flat terrain. The second case presents the simulations of stably stratified flows over obstacles. The last case deals with the dispersion of a hazardous material within an urban canopy. It was performed in the frame of the COST Action ES1006 and uses the Michelstadt flow and dispersion dataset for model validation.


Flow and diffusion characteristics inside the urban area
Chaloupecká, Hana ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Brechler, Josef (referee)
Title: Flow and diffusion characteristics inside the urban area Author: Hana Chaloupecká Department: Department of meteorology and enviroment protection Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Zbyněk Jaňour, DrSc., IT AS CR, v. v. i. Supervisor's e  mail: janour@it.cas.cz Abstract: Uniqueness of different towns, consists of various shapes of buildings. The main topic of this work is to compare concentration diffusion within groups of buildings of various types. We pursued houses made of single blocks of two different lengths  they were placed parallel or in courtyards. For research of pollution diffusion within the housing estates a method of physical modelling has been used. For this purpose we summarized a theory of atmospheric boundary layer and physical modelling at first. Then we pursued experiments. Measuring took place in a model in scale 1 : 300 inside an aerodynamic wind tunnel of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS in Nový Knín. We checked out the requirements placed on similarity of the real boundary layer and boundary layer modelled in the tunnel. By the measuring of concentration in urban areas we weren't watching a plume from the pollution source but we were studying an inversion task. We measured concentrations in two fixed points from different point sources inside the defined areas. A sensitivity of...


Thermally stratified atmospheric flow modelling
Jirk, Aleš ; Brechler, Josef (advisor) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (referee)
In this thesis there is simulated an incompressible laminar flow in a higherorder accuracy around a circle cylinder with usage of an immersed boundary method and around a cylinder with a square crosssection with an influence of a thermal stratification. In the theoretical part the system of NavierStokes equations with Bussinesq approximation is derived and the methods for simulating are described. Fifth order WENO shockcapturing scheme reconstructs advections terms on the boundaries of control volumes. An explicit fourthorder RungeKutta scheme solves the first step of a fractional steps method. The obstacle with the circle crosssection is described by the immersed boundary method. In the implementation section there is interpreted the structure of programs for 2D cases. In the section Numerical experiments there is realized testing of the examples with the exactknown results the linear hyperbolic equations, the Burgers equations and the Euler equations and of a square cavity flow with Reynolds numbers of 100,1000 and 5000 with known numerical results for the NavierStokes equation. There is solved the flow around a square (and a circle) cylinder for Reynolds numbers 30; 200. Strouhal numbers are computed for von Kármán vortex street. Finally the flow around a square cylinder with influence of thermal...

 
 

Microscale flow and diffusion characteristics inside the urban area
Kukačka, Libor ; Brechler, Josef (referee) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor)
Dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere of urban areas is the important task in environmental sciences. The main goal was the quantitative studying of a flow in a symmetrical urban builtup area depending on a running on flow direction. There was given a theoretical base of the physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer in this work. The measurement was done with a model of the urban buildup area at a scale of 1:200 in the aerodynamic wind tunnel of the IT AS CR, v.v.i. in Nový Knín. The requirements to the similarity to a real atmospheric boundary layer and a model boundary layer in the wind tunnel were accomplished. Velocity fields, concentration fields and fields of scalar uxes were measured in the area of a rectangular intersection. Results of the experiment showed significant sensitivity of the velocity field about the running on flow direction that extensively inuenced ventilation of street canyons.
