National Repository of Grey Literature 101 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Sudden release of toxic gas in built-up environment
Chaloupecká, Hana ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Zelinger, Zdeněk (referee) ; Efthimiou, George (referee)
The dissertation thesis deals with short-term gas releases (puffs) in an urban canopy studied utilizing wind-tunnel modelling. The urban canopy was composed of buildings with pitched roofs organised into closed courtyards. Into it, a ground-level point gas source was placed. The first part of the thesis is focused on specific definitions of puff characteristics. New definitions of puff arrival and departure times are presented. Various definitions of puff arrival time were applied on the same datasets and the results were compared. Moreover, it was studied how slight changes in determination of puff departure time can affect its values and other derived puff characteristics. The second part of the thesis is focused on modelling of probability density functions of puff characteristics with knowledge of sampling positions towards the gas source and mean values of concentrations valid for long-term gas sources. The found equations will be utilized in an operational model. The outputs in the form of the probability density functions of puff characteristics distinguish my model from the usually utilized operational models, in which only the ensemble-averaged puff outline and concentration field can be predicted.
Flow and pollutant dispersion measurements at model Ústí nad Labem in a wind tunnel
Nosek, Štěpán ; Jaňour, Zbyněk
Using a method of physical modeling, an experiment simulating the flow and dispersion of passive (ethane) and heavy (butane) gas inside and over a part of the city of Ústí nad Labem was successfully carried out in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Thermomechanics CAS in Nový Knín according to the client's (Spolchemie, a.s.) requirements. , as). Three wind directions (W, SW and W) were simulated for one source of leakage and the velocity and concentration fields in the monitored areas were measured for each of them. The ability to compare the evolution of passive and heavy gas concentrations as a function of distance from the source, altitude, and wind direction helped to show that lighter gas disperses to more distant areas than heavier gas, independent of the studied wind direction. The western wind direction was determined to be the most unfavorable for the dispersion of the pollutant towards the city center, and the southwest direction for the dispersion towards the university campus. In the north-westerly wind direction, no instantaneous concentration values ​​were measured in both of these critical areas.
Investigation of flow within naturally ventilated cattle barn: preliminary results from wind-tunnel experiments
Nosek, Štěpán ; Kluková, Zuzana ; Kellnerová, Radka ; Jakubcová, Michala ; Jaňour, Zbyněk
The mean vector (longitudinal and vertical velocity components) and scalar (turbulence intensity) fields within a scale (1:50) model of naturally ventilated cattle barn were qualitatively compared in this study. These qualitative comparisons clearly show the effect of the simulated atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the opening configuration on the flow characteristics within the barn. ABL of moderately rough terrain produces higher velocities at both the inlet and the outlet openings and inside the barn than that ABL of very rough terrain. However, the intensity of the turbulence is more dependent on the configuration of the opening. For instance, although ABL was very rough and therefore more turbulent, lower turbulence intensities were observed for that ABL than for the moderately rough ABL in the case of middle openings.
Similarities in chaotic behavior of Lorenz 05 model and ECMWF models
Bednář, Hynek ; Raidl, Aleš (advisor) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (referee) ; Pokorný, Pavel (referee)
This thesis tests the ability of the Lorenz's (2005) chaotic model to simulate predictability curve of the ECMWF model calculated from data over the 1986 to 2011 period and demonstrates similarity of the predictability curves for the Lorenz's model with N = 90 variables. This thesis also tests approximations of predictability curves and their differentials, aiming to correct the ECMWF model estimated parameters and thus allow for estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent, model error and limit value of the predictability curve. The correction is based on comparing the parameters estimated for the Lorenz's and ECMWF and on comparison with the largest Lyapunov exponent (λ=0,35 day-1 ) and limit value of the predictability curve (E∞=8,2) of the Lorenz's model. Parameters are calculated from approximations made by the Quadratic hypothesis with and without model error, as well as by Logarithmic and General hypotheses and by hyperbolic tangent employing corrections with and without model error. Average value of the largest Lyapunov exponent is estimated to be λ=0,37 day-1 for the ECMWF model, limit values of the predictability curves are estimated with lower theoretically derived values and new approach of calculation of model error based on comparison of models is presented.
Precipitation nowcasting for the warm part of the year
Mejsnar, Jan ; Sokol, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (referee) ; Žák, Michal (referee)
Current precipitation nowcasting systems primarily use the extrapolation of observed radar reflectivity. I used the extrapolation and studied limits of the forecast using the concept of the decorrelation time (DCT). I used data from two radars covering the territory of the Czech Republic from warm parts of four years and calculated DCT in dependence on several selected conditions describing the state of the atmosphere. I found that the mean DCT for the extrapolation is 45.4 minutes. On average the increase of the DCT in comparison when the persistence forecast is employed is 13.4 minutes. However, in dependence on current conditions the DCT may increase or decrease in more than 40 %. I also explored time evolution of the DCT during two storm events. I found that the DCT may significantly change in time, which is the consequence of changing character of the atmosphere during the storm development.
Urban Ventilation Dependence on Geometric Configuration
Kukačka, Libor ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Carpentieri, Matteo (referee) ; Uruba, Václav (referee)
Title: Urban Ventilation Dependence on Geometric Configuration Author: RNDr. Ing. Libor Kukačka Department: Department of Atmospheric Physics Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Zbyněk Jaňour, DrSc., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Thermomechanics, v. v. i. Abstract: The main goal of the thesis is to investigate the impact of urban geometry on the urban ventilation using wind-tunnel modelling. To measure the pollutant transport, both advective and turbulent, within complex urban geometries with a high temporal resolution a special measurement method was developed. At first, the pollution of a simplified urban area was simulated by a ground-level point source and the ventilation of the intersection with respect to four wind directions was studied. Later, the pollution of other simplified and complex urban areas was simulated by a ground-level line source and the ventilation of three different street canyons with respect to wind direction perpendicular and oblique to their along-canyon axis was investigated. The clear impact of urban complexity and wind direction on street canyon ventilation is demonstrated at lateral and top openings of all investigated canyons and the intersection. Whilst the dominance of the pollutant advection is demonstrated at the eaves of pitched roofs, at the roof ridges...
Impact of Turbulence Generators on Turbulent Characteristics and Structures
Kellnerová, Radka ; Jurčáková, Klára ; Jaňour, Zbyněk
The turbulent generators are routinely used to produce very turbulent flows. Special type of vertically slenderize spires are applied to enhance turbulent diffusion from the surface upwards in order to increase the boundary layer depth. This paper studies the influence of variable upstream distance of generators on formation of both vortical and non-vortical organized structures within a test section. The 2-component 2-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurement of the flow was performed in the wind channel with very rough surface. Intermittent flow dynamics was evaluated by means of higher order moments, vorticity, quadrant and wavelet analysis. The downstream evolution of the flow suggests that equilibrium between roughness- and spires-produced turbulence was reached at the distance of 7 spires height.\n
Wind-tunnel Modelling of Turbulent Flow Inside the Street Canyon
Kellnerová, Radka ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Brechler, Josef (referee) ; Jonáš, Pavel (referee)
Turbulent flow inside a street canyon was investigated in an open circuit wind tunnel and in a blow-down wind channel. Two geometries were used for comparison purposes: buildings with pitched roofs and with flat roofs. Both generate the flow of a different category, so the induced ventilation regimes are fundamentally different. Quadrant, Fourier and Wavelet analysis, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and vortex detection methods are used to identify coherent structures in the flow and establish their impact on the ventilation of pollution. Two types of the organised motions are detected: the compact areas of sweep and ejection with the scale comparable to the size of building and the small vortices generated in the shear layer behind the building roof. POD identifies the most dominant modes with high coherency in the flow and evaluates the relative contributions of each mode to the overall kinetic energy of turbulence. Rigorous analysis of the correctness of the physical interpretation for such a decomposition is carried out. Wavelet analysis is applied to the time-series of the POD expansion coefficients in order to reveal control mechanism of the dynamics of the modes. Vorticity, calculated from the original velocity data, is decomposed by POD as well. Finally, the correlation between the vorticity...
Mathematical modelling of air-flow in geometrically complicated areas
Fuka, Vladimír ; Brechler, Josef (advisor) ; Fürst, Jiří (referee) ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (referee)
The Charles University Large-eddy Microscale Model (CLMM) and its application are presented. It is a numerical model for simulation of turbulent flow and dispersion in the planetary boundary layer. CLMM solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation and describes turbulence using the large eddy simulation. Three applications of the model are presented. In the first case, the model is applied to the stable boundary layer over a flat terrain. The second case presents the simulations of stably stratified flows over obstacles. The last case deals with the dispersion of a hazardous material within an urban canopy. It was performed in the frame of the COST Action ES1006 and uses the Michelstadt flow and dispersion dataset for model validation.
Flow and diffusion characteristics inside the urban area
Chaloupecká, Hana ; Jaňour, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Brechler, Josef (referee)
Title: Flow and diffusion characteristics inside the urban area Author: Hana Chaloupecká Department: Department of meteorology and enviroment protection Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Zbyněk Jaňour, DrSc., IT AS CR, v. v. i. Supervisor's e - mail: janour@it.cas.cz Abstract: Uniqueness of different towns, consists of various shapes of buildings. The main topic of this work is to compare concentration diffusion within groups of buildings of various types. We pursued houses made of single blocks of two different lengths - they were placed parallel or in courtyards. For research of pollution diffusion within the housing estates a method of physical modelling has been used. For this purpose we summarized a theory of atmospheric boundary layer and physical modelling at first. Then we pursued experiments. Measuring took place in a model in scale 1 : 300 inside an aerodynamic wind tunnel of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS in Nový Knín. We checked out the requirements placed on similarity of the real boundary layer and boundary layer modelled in the tunnel. By the measuring of concentration in urban areas we weren't watching a plume from the pollution source but we were studying an inversion task. We measured concentrations in two fixed points from different point sources inside the defined areas. A sensitivity of...

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