National Repository of Grey Literature 13 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Philosophy of Ordinary Language - its Decline and What to Do After It
Ivan, Michal ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Peregrin, Jaroslav (referee) ; Tomeček, Marek (referee)
The general topic of the thesis is the history of the Ordinary Language Philosophy. To be more precise, it deals with the critical arguments, which were raised against is. The thesis offers a short historical and sociological review of the Ordinary Language Philosophy. Critical analysis shows two things: 1) the main reason for the rejection was a different understanding of meaning (and consequences of such a understanding); 2) critics begged the question and already assumed the justification of these rejections in their arguments. The area of this criticism was: the paradigm case argument, the empirical nature of the statements of meaning produced by the Ordinary Language Philosophy, the structural elements of meaning and the political implications of the theory of meaning. The thesis criticizes the Ordinary Language Philosophy in those parts (and in such interpretations), where its understanding of meaning does not differ from the understanding of the critics and where they share common assumptions. On the other hand, the thesis argues for an interpretation, which avoids classical understanding of meaning in all its consequences. Finally, the thesis asks how the Ordinary Language Philosophy can be useful for contemporary debates.
Wearing Jewerly as a Performative Act
Stündlová, Barbora ; Fišerová, Michaela (advisor) ; Ivan, Michal (referee)
The concept or phenomenon od performativity occurs in different forms or terms in many humanity studies, especially in the second half of the 20th century. It interferes with linguistics, philosophy of thought, narratology, gender and cultural studies and even with epistemology and ethics. The notion of performativity appeared in philosophy and linguistics for the first time along with J. L. Austin's speech and perfomative acts. The first one describes the situation, the second one generates the situation. J. Derrida pointed out that the realization of speech acts and communication are not so obvious and depend on performance that maintains their status and identity. J. Derrida furthermore shows that performance does not only appear in the literary field; the law is for example performative in the sense that it sets itself up by a speech act. M. Foucault was interested of the role of performativity within a socially organized body and subjectivity. The performance of language and discourse is also essential in J. Butler's work which follows M. Foucault or J. Derrida and describes mechanisms for establishing gender subjectivity and physicality. She claims that the body is created simultaneously by the linguistic naming which it decribes. Butler writes up the process of gender differentiaton as...
The Problem of Communication between Man and Machin in Contemporary Visual Culture
Horáková, Petra ; Řehořová, Irena (advisor) ; Ivan, Michal (referee)
In present diploma thesis called The Problem of Communication between Man and Machine in Contemporary Visual Culture I will analyse the movie by Spike Jonze called Her (2013), in which the topic of interconnection between Artificial Intelligence and real human world is presented. I will deal mostly with the themes of virtual reality and communication between man and computer. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first is based on the analysis of chosen theories of new media in order to reveal the theoretical foundation of the theme of interaction between the man (as human body) and machine (as computer); also I will analyse the development in the fiedl of AI to describe various forms of human-computer communication. The second part of the thesis is based on the case study/analysis of the movie Her, in which the theme of communication between human and computer is presented. In the first part of the thesis I will follows ideas of Lev Manovich, Marshall McLuhan, Pierre Lévy, Paul Virilio, John Searle, Jakub Macek and Mark B. N. Hansen. Keywords Machine, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, new media, computers, internet
Semantic Analysis of Selected Czech Key Words. Theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage Applied to Czech
Pavlásková, Marie ; Císařovská, Lily (advisor) ; Ivan, Michal (referee)
Diploma thesis, which is based on Anna Wierzbicka's natural semantic metalanguage theory, discusses certain specific features of Czech language worldview and compares them with specific features of English language worldview. This intercultural comparison is made possible by the cultural neutrality of the natural semantic metalanguage which serves as a language in which explications of analyzed words are formulated and compared to their English counterparts. Analyses of Czech keywords are based mainly on the use of dictionaries (explanatory and etymological dictionaries and dictionaries of phrases and idioms) and Czech corpora. The analysis aims to show differences between Czech and English cultural norms and values as reflected in different semantic structures of analyzed concepts, which presumably indicate deeper differences in perceiving and interpreting reality in both languages.
Analysis of classifications of the speech acts and conversational implicatures politeness on the example of cosmetic advertising
Theimerová, Stanislava ; Ivan, Michal (advisor) ; Marcelli, Miroslav (referee)
In this thesis we deal with pragmatic aspects of language, specifically studying the classification of speech acts and conversational implicature. The theoretical part is concerned with the work of J. L. Austin, J. R. Searle and M. Grepl with an emphasis on differences in the classification of illocutionary acts. Then we deal with the maxim of politeness and pleasantries types according to P. Brown and S. C. Lewinson. In the practical part using analysis of advertising headlines and slogans we are trying to demonstrate the functionality of the classification of speech acts by individual authors. We try to also confirm the performative nature of these statements also implicitly expressed performative verbs. We are interested in the presence of the maxims of politeness in these texts and the consequent shift between different types of courtesy. The aim is to highlight the issue of classification of illocutionary acts and try to outline improvements to this shift. The assumption is that, although the classification struggling with inaccuracies, we thereunder able to distinguish different types of repetitive speeches. To complement these findings, we want to prove performative character of advertising texts, even assuming that there will be implicitly expressed performative verb and the presence of...
The concept of silence in Ludwig Wittgenstein's early work
Veinbender, Kristina ; Ivan, Michal (advisor) ; Hvorecký, Juraj (referee)
The concept of silence in Ludwig Wittgenstein's early work Abstract The work deals with the concept of silence in the early work of Ludwig Wittgenstein (Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus). The aim is to explore the dichotomy of being silent-speaking and describe cases that fall into each category. Work will concentrate on the criteria of meaningfulness and meaninglessness, according to which the individual sentences classified in one category or the other. The work also offers a comparison of the reference theory in Tractatus and cognitive realism proposed by G. Lakoff and on their background shows the role and importance of silence in shaping the semantic theory of language.
The role of the body in acquiring skills
Adámková, Anna ; Ivan, Michal (advisor) ; Charvát, Martin (referee)
The main topic of the master thesis is the exploration of a process of learning and acquitision of skills. In fact these processes are the important parts of a human life indeed. The issue of this topic is being considered through a different but certainly related topic - the rules and their function. The first part of this thesis consists of the analyses of several points of view on the topic of rules as a whole. The introduction of the thesis is supplemented with the theory of S. Blackmore speaking about the meaning of mems in our lifes. After the first part, where the work of J. Peregrin "A Man and rules" is analised, the other bigger charter begins with the analysis of M. Merleau-Ponty point of view on a human body and embodiment - the essence of a human being. In fact the studies of S. Curtiss and A. S. Benzaquen are the sources of the particular cases that are closely connected with the topic of the previous chapters of the thesis and that close the thesis.
Interpretation of advertising based on using metaphors
Horáková, Miroslava ; Ivan, Michal (advisor) ; Kladný, Tomáš (referee)
This thesis deals with metaphors in the conception of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. Metaphor is one of the fundamental principles anchored in our conceptual system and in our relationship to the world. Metaphors reveal how the world is saved in our language. This thesis illustrates a method of forming metaphors on the example of advertisements. It closely focuses on the cultural differences.
The Discourse Analysis of "Mamet Speak": The Display of Power in Language and the Limits of Language
Skřivanová, Martina ; Kladný, Tomáš (advisor) ; Ivan, Michal (referee)
This master's thesis analyses the following plays by contemporary American playwright, David Mamet: Oleanna (1992) and Glengarry Glen Ross (1983). The thesis deals with the discourse that was used and the question of the characters' power relations, which are examined from a sociolinguistic point of view. Firstly, the thesis defines power relations according to Michel Foucault and shows that communication can serve as an instrument of how to act upon others. The thesis is primarily based on the theory of Deborah Tannen, who observes the ambivalent nature of solidarity and power, and introduces her five areas of interest: indirectness, interruption, silence versus volubility, topic raising and verbal conflict. The thesis examines a selection of dialogues from the plays in order to elucidate how these aspects further influence the actions and behaviour of the characters, and explores the effects of the utterances including the effects of power. The thesis also deals with the question of failure of communication, which is examined from the perspective of Roman Jakobson's functions of language, Paul Grice's cooperative principle and Geoffrey N. Leech's politeness principle. Key Words Mamet, Oleanna, Glengarry Glen Ross, discourse, power, power relations, failure of communication

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