National Repository of Grey Literature 123 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The nitrogen balance evaluation at ventilated polytrauma patients in ICU.
Slováková, Tereza ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nutritional support on energy expenditure and nutritional substrates oxidation, focused on proteins and nitrogen balance, in ventilated polytraumatized patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The study was performed on 15 critically ill patients (12 men and 3 women), their average age was 43,6 ± 17,5 years. 7 patients were examinated without nutritional support, 8 patients were examinated after administration of hypocaloric nutritional support. The examination of fasting patients was conducted after at least 4 hours of fasting. The examination of patients with nutritional support were conducted after at least 4 hours of nutritional support administration. Energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure and nutritional substrates oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry. After statistical analysis of measured data was found, that administration of hypocaloric nutritional support did not significantly influence nutritional substrates oxidation. Protein intake correlated with total nitrogen balance (p = 0,0133) and muscular condition. Results suggest, that administered proteins were partly used as source of energy instead of muscle protein and partly used a different way, e.g. for tissue reparation. Therefore, nutritional support...
Risks Associated with the Dietary Supplements Use.
Zubrová, Julie ; Jahodář, Luděk (advisor) ; Hronek, Miloslav (referee) ; Malíř, František (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradci Králové Department of: Social and Clinical Pharmacy Candidate: PharmDr. Julie Zubrová Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Luděk Jahodář, CSc. Consultant: PharmDr. Jitka Pokladníková, Ph.D. Title of Thesis: Risks Associated with the Dietary Supplements Use The worldwide increase of dietary supplements use, the way they are marketed and the limited information about safety of these products open the space to make new studies and thus to increase the safety of dietary supplements use in general public. In this dissertation, four individual topics related to the dietary supplements use were addressed: the safety of the use of additives in dietary supplements, allergy-like reactions to herbal products in children, the quality of information on the Internet relating to dietary supplements, the dietary supplements use by patients in the pre-operative period. The results of individual studies carried out in the framework of the dissertation showed potential risks associated with the dietary supplements use. Besides undesirable side effects of dietary supplements and interactions, potential side effects have been reported with some additives, especially if the patient is receiving the additive simultaneously in several dietary supplements or with food....
Changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy.
Gierová, Lucie ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of this work was to determine changes in resting energy expenditure in three periods of pregnancy using indirect calorimetry and assess correlations between the obtained resting energy expenditure values and anthropometric parameters. Methods To determine resting energy expenditure was used indirect calorimetry, which measured oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, from which this value was calculated. Measurements were performed in seven healthy pregnant women. Measurements took place over three periods. The first examination took place from the 17th to the 27th week of pregnancy, the second from the 28th to the 35th week of pregnancy and the third from the 36th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Results We found that resting energy expenditure values increased with pregnancy length (REE1 = 1670 ± 148 kcal/day; REE2 = 1717 ± 230 kcal/day; REE3 = 1984 ± 209 kcal/day). Also, correlations have been found with age, body weight, fat free mass and fat mass, body surface area, body mass index, and other parameters. Conclusion During pregnancy many changes happen, including metabolic changes. We acknowledged that with increasing duration of pregnancy REE increases, most significantly at the end of pregnancy. This increase is related to a large number of factors, as correlation...
Energy expenditure and nutritional substrate utilization in critically ill patients.
Korvasová, Hana ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Havel, Eduard (referee)
This thesis deals with the measurement of (resting) energy expenditure and oxidation of nutritional substrates in critically ill patients, according to variously given nutritional support. The comparison of nutritional substrate incomes followed recommendation of the ESPEN guidance. Patients were examined by indirect calorimetry. This study included 9 critically ill patients on the ventilator, of which 1 patient was spontaneously breathing. (Resting) energy expenditure and oxidation of individual nutritional substrates were determined from the measured values. Firstly, the measurements were taken on fasting patients (without nutritional support). Secondly, a low caloric nutrition (1370  296.7 kcal/day) and lastly, normocaloric nutrition (2169.802  500.926 kcal/day) were given. This study also demonstrated the inaccuracy of resting energy expenditure estimation using predictive equations (the Harris-Benedict equation specifically), compared to the measured (R)EE by indirect calorimetry. According to the results of the HB-equation, resting energy expenditure decreased with increasing nutritional support. However, indirect calorimetry values showed the opposite, namely the increase in (resting) energy expenditure with increasing nutritional support. A statistically significant difference was found...
Bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of body composition during pregnancy.
Nosková, Andrea ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive and rapid method of determining the amount of body fluids and their distribution within the extracellular and intracellular space based on tissue resistance. The device is able to estimate the mass of fat and muscle tissue due to different amounts of water. The aim of the thesis was to determine the structure of human body in different phases of pregnancy by means of bioimpedance spectroscopy. There are not many research institutes in the Czech Republic dealing with the development of metabolic and physical changes during pregnancy. Seven pregnant women were involved in the clinical observational study. They had physiological pregnancy, good metabolic health, non-smokers and non-drinkers. Except one woman, they were all primiparous. These pregnant women were examined a total of three times by the Body composition monitor (BCM). The measured values showed increase of weight in all examined cases by roughly about 13,3 kg (median). Ratios lean mass tissue/height 2 ratios (LTI) and fat/height 2 ratios (FTI) has reached their maximum at the end of the third trimester. The amount of total fluid (TBM), intracellular fluid (ICW) and extracellular fluid (ECW) increased gradually. The highest peak of all fluids was reached in the third trimester and with...
Resting energy expenditure during lacatation.
Klečka, Michal ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of diploma thesis was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate oxidation in Czech lactating women and their relation to measured anthropometric parameters. Methods The indirect calorimetry was used to asses REE. Subsequently, the oxidation of substrates was calculated. At the same time were measured anthropometric parameters of breastfeeding women. Then the correlation was investigated. The total amount of examination were three times. First was in the time three weeks after birth, the second one was three months postpartum and the last was six months after birth. Results The mean values of REE in lactating women were 1577±93 kcal/day in the time of three weeks after birth. Three months after birth it was 1622±140 kcal/day. Six months after birth it was 1545±80 kcal/day. Significant positive correlation was proved between REE and triceps skinfold thickness (r = 0,98; P < 0,05) and also chest circumference (r = 0,99; P < 0,05). Both were three weeks after birth. Breastfeeding women had a value of lipid oxidation 60 % of substrate oxidation three weeks postpartum, which decreased to 46 % three months postpartum due to sharp increase (from 8 % to 18 %) of carbohydrate oxidation value. This increase could correspond to the preferential use of glucose by the mammary...
The influence of physical activity on energy metabolism parameters of pregnant and lactating women
Imrichová, Tamara ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hronek, Miloslav (referee)
8 2. ABSTRACT Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Tamara Imrichová Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title of master thesis: The influence of physical activity on energy metabolism parameters of pregnant and lactating women Background: The aim of our work was to compare changes in the parameters of energy metabolism and then evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the parameters of physical activity of pregnant and lactating women. Methods: Evaluation of energy metabolism was carried out by the method of indirect calorimetry. The calorimeter can estimate the resting energy expenditure (REE) and oxidation of individual nutritional substrates (after determining the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine). To determine the parameters of physical activity, women were given to complete a 7 days questionnaire, which was evaluated on the basis of recalculation using metabolic equivalents. Results: In our study, we observed an increase in REE during pregnancy in the third trimester and an increase in volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) compared to lactating women. The values of respiratory and non-protein respiratory quotient remained unchanged. In case of oxidation...
The influence of physical activity on body composition parameters of pregnant and lactating women
Skoncová, Damiána ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hronek, Miloslav (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Damiána Skoncová Supervisor of master thesis: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title of master thesis: The influence of physical activity on body parameters of pregnant and lactating women The main target of my diploma was to compare body composition parameters of women in pregnancy and in the lactation. Then, after all these findings determine the impact of physical activity to body composition parameters which we measured by bioimpedance analysis. Data about physical activity we obtained by questionnaire from women before every measurement. Study attended 10 pregnant primiparous women, who have a physiological pregnancy. Study continued in the lactation. Overall we did 8 examinations - 2 examinations in period of gravidity, this were followed by examination on the day of birth, next one on day after birth and last 4 examinations in period of lactation. Body composition parameters were determined on devices, which work on basis of bioimpedance analysis. This method evaluates body composition via weak electric current, which passes through body during measurement. Different tissues show different resistance toward this weak current. Bioimpedance analysis turned out to be as fast,...
Bioimpedance spectroscopic body analysis during lactation.
Urbánková, Tereza ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
The aim of the diploma thesis was to cover the changes in body composition by bioimpedance spectroscopy in Czech breastfeeding women during three periods - 3 weeks postpartum, 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Eight healthy breastfeeding women were involved in the study. At each examination there were measured anthropometric parameters and bioimpedance spectroscopy parameters by the Body Composition Monitor. Breast milk was also extracted during the study. We observed a gradual decrease in body weight of monitored women. The median weight loss between the first and third examination was 2,2 kg, the median weight in 6 months postpartum was 1,3 kg higher than the median of prepregnancy body weight, two of the women had lower weight 6 months postpartum than before the pregnancy, the body weight of other six women was higher in a scale between 0,1 kg to 3,1 kg. There were not proven statistically significant differences in body composition during lactation. A trend of decrease of TBW was observed during all lactation periods. A trend of slight increase of ICW was observed between the 3rd week and 3rd month postpartum, and then the decrease of ICW in the 6th month postpartum. An increase of LTM and BCM was measured between the 3rd week and 3rd month postpartum, those values have shown a decrease again...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 123 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
2 Hronek, Miroslav
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.