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Low cycle fatigue behaviour and fatigue crack initiation in MAR-M247 at 700 °c
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Hrbáček, K.
The second generation nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 offersa satisfying combination of fatigue and creep properties and oxidation and corrosion resistance that arerequired for application at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. The microstructure consists mainly oftheface centred cubic γ matrix and ordered γ ́ strengthening precipitates (L12crystal structure). The present work focuses on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 at high temperature. LCF tests were conducted on cylindrical specimens in symmetrical push-pull cycle under strain control with constant total strain amplitude and strain rate at 700 °C in ambientair. Cyclic stress-strain curvesand fatigue life curves in the representation ofplastic strain amplitude vs. stress amplitude andstress amplitude vs. the number of cycles to failure, respectively,were plotted and compared with data obtained on Inconel 713LC. Special attention waspaid to the investigation of crack initiation in MAR-M247 during low cycle fatigue. Crack initiation sites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in dual beam microscope TESCAN LYRA 3 XMU FESEM equipped with focus ion beam (FIB). Specimens’ surface observations revealed the formation of pronounced surface relief indicating localisation of plastic deformation.Observations in transmission electron microscope (TEM)confirmed localisation of cyclic plastic deformation in persistent slip bands along {111} slip planes. Fractographic analysis revealed fatigue crack initiation sites. Fatigue crack propagation in stage I was typical of smooth facets up to 500 μm long.
HIGH - TEMPERATURE CREEP BEHAVIOUR OF CAST COBALT-BASE SUPERALLOYS
Dvořák, Jiří ; Král, Petr ; Kvapilová, Marie ; Hrbáček, Karel ; Sklenička, Václav
Two cast and heat-treated NbC and TaC – strengthened cobalt superalloys have been developed for a precision casting of spinner discs for glass wool industry. In this work constant load creep tests in tension were carried out in argon atmosphere at three testing temperature 900, 950 and 1000 °C and at the initial applied stresses ranged from 40 to 200 MPa. All the tests were continued until the final fracture. The results of creep testing were combined with microstructural and fractographic examinations by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A mutual comparison of creep characteristics of the investigated superalloys under comparable creep loading conditions showed that NbC-strengthened superalloy exhibited longer creep life than TaC-strengthened one. Further, it was found that carbide precipitation is the primary strengthening mechanism in both cobalt-base superalloys under investigation and the amount, morphology\nand type of carbides have the decisive effect on the creep properties including creep damage and fracture processes. By contrast, NbC-superalloy exhibited a more brittle character of creep fracture mode than TaCstrengthened superalloy. This study was initiated to investigate in more details creep deformation processes and the effect of the creep microstructure and damage evolution on both investigated superalloys. The different behaviour and properties of studied superalloys were explained based on the received results of this study.
LOW CYCLE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR AND FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION IN MAR-M247 AT 700 °C
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Hrbáček, K.
The second generation nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 offers a satisfying combination of fatigue and creep properties and oxidation and corrosion resistance that are required for application at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. The microstructure consists mainly of the face centred cubic γ matrix and ordered γ´ strengthening precipitates (L12 crystal structure). The present work focuses on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 at high temperature. LCF tests were conducted on cylindrical specimens in a symmetrical push-pull cycle under strain control with constant total strain amplitude and strain rate at 700 °C in ambient air. Cyclic stress-strain curves and fatigue life curves in the representation of plastic strain amplitude vs. stress amplitude and stress amplitude vs. the number of cycles to failure, respectively, were plotted and compared with data obtained on Inconel 713LC. Special attention was paid to the investigation of crack initiation in MAR-M247 during low cycle fatigue. Crack initiation sites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in dual beam microscope TESCAN LYRA 3 XMU FESEM equipped with focus ion beam (FIB). Specimens’ surface observations revealed the formation of pronounced surface relief indicating localisation of plastic deformation. Observations in transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed localisation of cyclic plastic deformation in persistent slip bands along {111} slip planes. Fractographic analysis revealed fatigue crack initiation sites. Fatigue crack propagation in stage I was typical of smooth facets up to 500 μm long.
Interaction of Creep and High Cycle Fatigue of IN 713LC Superalloy
Horník, V. ; Šmíd, Miroslav ; Hutař, Pavel ; Kunz, Ludvík ; Hrbáček, K.
The study deals with the interaction of creep and high cycle fatigue of cast polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy IN 713LC at high temperatures. Previous works indicated that creep lifetime of superalloy structures was un-affected or even slightly increased in the cases with superimposed vibrations. The reason for this behaviour was not well described up to now. Therefore, set of fatigue tests was conducted at high mean stresses level to observe this phenomenon. The mean stress was kept constant while the stress amplitudes were selected in order to measure wide range of conditions from pure creep to pure fatigue. Fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done with the aim to identify governing damage mechanisms for particular test conditions as a preliminary evaluation of conducted tests.
EFFECT OF HIP ON LOW CYCLE FATIGUE OF MAR-M247 AT 900°C
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Škorík, Viktor ; Hrbáček, K.
Polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy MAR-M247 is used for high temperature applications requiring excellent combination of fatigue properties, creep resistance and surface stability. These superior high temperature characteristics derive from the microstructure which habitually consists of face centred cubic matrix γ and precipitate γ´ (L12 type ordered structure). In the present work, the high temperature low cycle fatigue behaviour of cast nickel-base superalloy MAR-M247 in as received condition and in hot isostatically pressed (HIP) condition was studied. The microstructure of the materials is characterized by dendritic grains, carbides and casting defects. Distribution and size of defects in both materials were studied. Isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were performed on cylindrical specimens under total strain control at 900°C in air. Cyclic stress–strain response and fatigue life of both materials were assessed. Beneficial effects of HIP process on cyclic stress-strain and fatigue life curves are discussed.
Fatigue properties of nickel-base superalloy inconel 792-5A at 800°C
Šmíd, Miroslav ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Petrenec, Martin ; Polák, Jaroslav ; Hrbáček, K.
Smooth specimens were cyclically strained under strain control with constant strain amplitude and constant strain rate. Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted in servo-hydraulic pulsator MTS equipped with a three zone resistance furnace at temperature 800°C in air. Fracture surface was studied in SEM after fatigue test termination. Selected specimens were used to prepare foils for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of microstructure and dislocation arrangement. They were used to obtain cyclic hardening/softening curves, cyclic stress-strain curve and fatigue life curves in the representation of stress amplitude, total strain amplitude and plastic strain amplitude versus number of cycles to fracture. Experimental points can be approximated with the Manson-Coffin law and the Basquin law. Fracture surface examinations revealed fatigue crack initiation sites.
Fatigue life and fatigue fracture of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 792-5A at room and at elevated temperatures
Šmíd, Miroslav ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Petrenec, Martin ; Polák, Jaroslav ; Hrbáček, K.
The aim of the present work is to study the effect of temperature on the fatigue life and fracture in cast polycrystalline nickel base superalloy Inconel 792-5A. Surface relief and fracture surface observations help to elucidate fatigue damage mechanism in the material used to produce the most critical component of gas turbines. Fatigue live curves can by approximated by the Manson-Coffin and Basquin law. Special attention was paid to the cyclic strain localisation on the specimen surface. Specimens strained with different strain amplitudes were used for fractographic investigation at each temperature. Both, the surface relief and the fracture surface observations, provide data on fatigue crack initiation. Detailed study of fracture surface topography was performed at all temperatures and different strain amplitudes and typical morphologies are documented. Fatigue damage mechanisms and crack path are discussed in relation to temperature, strain amplitude and crack lenght.
Low cycle fatigue on Inconel 713L and Inconel 792-5A superalloys at 500 A 700 °C
Petrenec, Martin ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Polák, Jaroslav ; Hrbáček, K. ; Kruml, Tomáš
Cylindrical specimens of cast polycrystalline nickel base superalloys Inconel 713LC and 792-5A were cyclically strained under total strain control at500°C and at700°C.Structural characteristics and morphology of gama´ precipitates of both materials are documented. Dislocations structures were studied using transmission electron microscopy using technique of oriented foils in selected specimens cyclically strained up to failure. Cyclic hardening/softening curves, cyclic stress-strain curves, and fatigue life curves were obtained for both temperatures. Cyclic hardening/softening curves depend both on temperature and plastic strain amplitude. The cyclic stress-strain curves can be approximated by power law. Experimental points of fatigue life curves satisfy the Manson-Coffin and Basquin law. Stress-strain response and fatigue life characteristics are compared at both temperatures and discussed in relative to structural parameters and to dislocation structures of superalloys studied.
Application of color etching technique for observation of microstructure of Ni-base superalloys
Konečná, R. ; Kunz, Ludvík ; Skočovský, P. ; Lukáš, Petr ; Hrbáček, K.
Color etching technique was shown to yield valuable information about the gamma/gamma prime microstructure of Ni-base superalloys, changes of microstructure during material exploitation and about small defects in the form of cavities and pores.
High temperature creep in cast Ni-Cr-W-C alloys
Sklenička, Václav ; Kudrman, J. ; Kuchařová, Květa ; Daněk, Rostislav ; Hrbáček, K.
A comparison between the creep characteristics of the two model Ni-Cr-W-C alloys under comparable creep conditions shows that creep strengthening is strongly dependent on the tungsten content.

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