National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The role of the gastrointestinal hormones in the control of energy homeostasis
Myšáková, Michaela ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Ergang, Peter (referee)
Zachování tělesné homeostázy vyžaduje precizní komunikaci mezi všemi buňkami organismu. Velkou měrou k tomu přispívají gastrointestinální hormony, které jsou významnými signálními molekulami a podílejí se na distribuci i zpracování přijatých živin. Každý h typem buněk a jeho sekrece je regulována v závislosti na přítomnosti konkrétních nutrientů. Vzhledem rozdílné anatomii jednotlivých částí gastrointestinálního traktu, je lokalizace buněk produkujících šná. Účinky gastrointestinálních hormonů jsou rozmanité a hrají důležitou roli energetické kontrole organismu. Některé hormony (gastrin) působí jen lokálně, naproti tomu jiné (inkretiny, ghrelin) jsou zapojeny do signalizace přes centrální i periferní ne do signalizace nervové soustavy umožňuje těmto hormonům podílet se na regulaci pocitu hladu a mnoha onemocněními. V důsledku nevyváženého příjmu živin (například při nadměrném příjmu lipidů nebo sacharidů) dochází narušení některé ze složek hormonálního regulačního systému a následně vzniku onemocnění. Nejznámějšími onemocněními, vzniklými v důsledku nutriční a následně hormonální dysbalance, jsou například inzulínová rezi hormony je naprosto klíčová pro zachování lipidového metabolismu i glukózové homeostázy. Klíčová slova:
Interaction between circadian clock and macrophages in the adipose tissue
Honzlová, Petra ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Horáková, Olga (referee)
Well functioning circadian system is crucial component of healthy organism and its disruption can result in impairment of metabolic functions with consequential development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is in general caused by enhanced migration of pro- inflammatory polarized macrophages (M1) into adipose tissue. We have shown, that interaction of this type of macrophages with adipose tissue had significant effect on rhythmic expression of clock genes in adipocytes. We further investigated effect of high fat diet and diet enriched by omega-3 fatty acids on circadian oscillations in WAT and differently polarized macrophages. This diet affected oscillations in adipose tissue and in M0 and M2 polarized macrophages. These results support previous findings of effect of omega-3 fatty acids on metabolism and suggest their effect on circadian system as well. Key words: circadian rhythms, adipose tissue, macrophages, omega-3 fatty acids, high fat diet
Effect of metformin on glucose tolerance in relation to fat content in diet
Kuchaříková, Petra ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Škop, Vojtěch (referee)
Prevalence of obesity and associated diseases like type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly during last years. These diseases closely relate to each other. Obesity leads to insulin resistence, which directly precedes type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the most prescribed medicament for type 2 diabetic patients and insulin resistant people. It improves glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is strogly involved in metformin action. The latest studies using transgenic models lacking AMPK suggest, that notable part of mechanisms involved in metformin action is independent on AMPK. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are abundant in sea fish, have beneficial effects on metabolism. These fatty acids lower plasma lipids and exert cardioprotective effects. n-3 PUFA also prevent development of insulin resistence and type 2 diabetes in rodents. The aim of this thesis was to characterise acute effects of metformin on glucose homeostasis, impact of short term diet intervention with diet rich in n-3 PUFA on metformin action and the role of insulin stimulated signalling pathways and AMPK. Results suggest that early effect of metformin is dose dependent and that single dose of metformin...
Role of adiponectin and B-type natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis
Wedellová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Horáková, Olga (referee)
Obesity is a most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Prevalence of obesity is consistently growing in all continents during last years. Primarily the increase of incidence of obesity in children is alarming. Obesity is linked to elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers and disorders of musculoskeletal system. The cost of the treatment of diseases linked to obesity is annually increasing and obesity represents very important part of costs of health system in developed - and recently also developing - countries. This fact shows the necessity of research in the area of preventive and therapeutic procedures. The development of metabolic disturbances linked to obesity is associated with dysfunction of adipose tissue. Its two main features are: 1) altered secretion of specific substance with hormonal or paracrinne charakter (called adipokines) and 2) elevated mobilization of non- esterified fatty acids (NEMK) from adipose tissue and subsequently their increased release into the circulation (1). In our studies we paid attention to the study of lipolysis. The rate of lipolysis is the primary factor that determines the release of NEFA from adipose tissue. We focused to a role of adiponectin and natriuretic peptid type B (BNP) in the regulation of lipolysis in...
Molecular mechanisms of insulin sensitivity in relation to fat content in diet
Kuchaříková, Petra ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Klusoňová, Petra (referee)
Insulin resistance is a key component of the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is an important part of energy metabolism. It recieves, stores and uses most of the glucose from blood. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake, by promoting translocation of glucose transpoters to plasma membrane. It also increases the rate of protein, glycogen and triglyceride synthesis. When muscle is unable to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, insulin resistance occurs. Insulin resistance leads to disruption of key metabolic processes. Fatty acid transport across the membrane is upregulated, whereas the ability to oxidize fatty acids is decreased. This imbalance leads to accumulation of lipid metabolites inside the cells. Lipid intermediates may interfere with insulin signalling. Inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF, activate kinases that may inhibit the insulin signal transmission. Insulin resistance may be treated pharmacologically, but also physical activity and decrease of energy intake are important part of therapy. Also polyunsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects on muscle insulin sensitivity.

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