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Instrumentation for study of nanomaterials in NPI REZ (New laboratory for material study in Nuclear Physics Institute in REZ)
Bejšovec, Václav ; Cannavó, Antonino ; Ceccio, Giovanni ; Hnatowicz, Vladimír ; Horák, Pavel ; Lavrentiev, Vasyl ; Macková, Anna ; Tomandl, Ivo ; Torrisi, Alfio ; Vacík, Jiří
Nano-sized materials become irreplaceable component of a number of devices for every aspect of human life. The development of new materials and deepening of the current knowledge require a set of specialized techniques-deposition methods for preparation/modification of the materials and analytical tools for proper understanding of their properties. A thoroughly equipped research centers become the requirement for the advance and development not only in nano-sized field. The Center of Accelerators and Nuclear Analytical Methods (CANAM) in the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) comprises a unique set of techniques for the synthesis or modification of nanostructured materials and systems, and their characterization using ion beam, neutron beam and microscopy imaging techniques. The methods are used for investigation of a broad range of nano-sized materials and structures based on metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, carbon-based materials (polymers, fullerenes, graphenes, etc.) and nano-laminate composites (MAX phases). These materials can be prepared at NPI using ion beam sputtering, physical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Based on the deposition method and parameters, the samples can be tuned to possess specific properties, e.g., composition, thickness (nm-μm), surface roughness, optical and electrical properties, etc. Various nuclear analytical methods are applied for the sample characterization. RBS, RBS-channeling, PIXE, PIGE, micro-beam analyses and Transmission Spectroscopy are accomplished at the Tandetron 4130MC accelerator, and additionally the Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNA) analyses are performed at an external neutron beam from the LVR-15 research reactor. The multimode AFM facility provides further surface related information, magnetic/electrical properties with nano-metric precision, nano-indentation, etc.
Study of lithium encapsulation in porous membrane using ion and neutron beams
Ceccio, Giovanni ; Cannavó, Antonino ; Horák, Pavel ; Torrisi, Alfio ; Tomandl, Ivo ; Hnatowicz, Vladimír ; Vacík, Jiří
Ion track-etched membranes are porous systems obtained by etching of the latent ion tracks using a suitable etchant solution. In this work, control of the pores' spatial profiles and dimensions in PET polymers was achieved by varying etching temperature and etching time. For determination of the pores' shape, Ion Transmission Spectroscopy technique was employed. In this method, alterations of the energy loss spectra of the transmitted ions reflect alterations in the material density of the porous foils, as well as alterations of their thickness. Simulation code, developed by the team, allowed the tomographic study of the ion track 3D geometry and its evolution during chemical etching. From the doping of porous membranes with lithium-based solution and its analysis by Thermal Neutron Depth Profiling method, the ability of porous PET membranes to encapsulate nano-sized material was also inspected. The study is important for various applications, e.g., for catalysis, active agents, biosensors, etc.
Production and characterization of micro-size pores for ion track etching applications
Cannavó, Antonino ; Havránek, Vladimír ; Lavrentiev, Vasyl ; Torrisi, L. ; Cutroneo, Mariapompea ; Ceccio, Giovanni ; Torrisi, Alfio ; Horák, Pavel ; Vacík, Jiří
For many years the applications of ion track etch materials have increased considerably, like charged particles detection, molecular identification with nanopores, ion track filters, magnetic studies with nanowires and so on. Over the materials generally used as track detector, the Poly-Allyl-Diglycol Carbonate (PADC), offers many advantages, like its nearly 100 % detection efficiency for charged particle, a high resistance to harsh environment, the lowest detection threshold, a high abrasion resistance and a low production costs. All of these properties have made it particularly attractive material, even if due to its brittleness, obtaining a thin film (less than 500 μm) is still a challenge. In this work, PADC foils have been exposed to a-particles emitted by a thin radioactive source of 241Am and to C ions from the Tandetron 4130 MC accelerator. The latent tracks generated in the polymer have been developed using a standard etching procedure in 6.25 NaOH solution. The dependence of the ion tracks' geometry on the ion beam energy and fluence has been evaluated combining the information obtained through a semiautomatic computer script that selects the etched ion tracks according to their diameter and mean grey value and nanometric resolution images by atomic force microscopy.
Laser-generated nanoparticles to change physical properties of solids, liquids and gases
Torrisi, Alfio ; Cutroneo, Mariapompea ; Ceccio, Giovanni ; Cannavó, Antonino ; Horák, Pavel ; Torrisi, L. ; Vacík, Jiří
Synthesis of nanoparticles was possible employing a Nd: YAG pulsed laser at fundamental harmonic. The production of nanoparticles in water depends mainly on the laser parameters (pulse duration, energy, wavelength), the irradiation conditions (focal spot, repetition rate, irradiation time) and the medium where the ablation occurs (solid target, water, solution concentration). The nanoparticles can be introduced in solids, liquids or gases to change many physical characteristics. The optical properties of polymers and solutions, the wetting ability of liquids, the electron density of laser-generated plasma, represent some examples that can be controlled by the concentration of metallic nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Ti, Cu). Some bio-medical applications will be presented and discussed.
Markers of joint inflammation related to disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.
Hurňáková, Jana ; Pavelka, Karel (advisor) ; Horák, Pavel (referee) ; Hrnčíř, Zbyněk (referee)
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic autoimmune disorder characterised by persistent synovitis, typically manifested as symmetric polyarthritis of small hand joints with various extra-articular manifestations. Accurate disease activity measurement is a key component of RA management that facilitates therapeutic optimalization in order to slow down the disease progression and to prevent an irreversible joint damage. The aim of this work was to study the role of candidate serum inflammatory markers and their associations with the disease activity in patients with RA presented by traditional variables of disease activity as well as by musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Results: The first part of our work pointed out relationship between serum calprotectin and clinical as well as ultrasound activity in RA. We have revealed that serum calprotectin is an independent predictor of ultrasound synovitis. Moreover, we have demonstrated the potential of calprotectin to identify patients with residual activity in spite of achieving clinical remission. In the second part, we have provided a detailed analysis of 20 candidate serum markers and found out a tight associations between IL-6, IL-7, IL-22, IL-34, YKL-40, CXCL-13, MMP-3, resistin and visfatin with clinical and ultrasound activity....
Epidemiological aspects of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and diffusional diseases of binding tissue.
Hánová, Petra ; Pavelka, Karel (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Horák, Pavel (referee)
v anglickém jazyce Introduction: No information was known about frequency of common inflammatory disorders in rheumatology in the Czech Republic. Aims of the study: To estimate the standardized annual incidence (INC) and point prevalence (PREV) of six diseases (rheumatoid arthritis-RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis-JIA, gout, psoriatic arthritis-PsA, ankylosing spondylitis-AS, reactive arthritis-ReA) in a population-based study in two regions of the Czech Republic (CR). Methods: INC: Incident cases were registered on condition that the definite diagnosis was confirmed according to existing classification criteria during the study period. PREV was studied on the basis of identification of established diagnoses at a time point. Crude rates were standardized for age and sex. Results: Both INC and PREV are shown per 100.000 inhabitants. RA INC:31 (95%CI 20-42), PREV:610 (95%CI 561-658). Gout-INC:41 (95%CI 28-53), PREV:300 (95% CI 266-334). JIA-INC: 13 (95% CI 1-20), PREV:140 (95%CI 117-280). PsA-INC:3,6 (95% CI 1-8), PREV:49 (95%CI 40-60). AS-INC:6 (95% CI 3-11), PREV:94 (95% CI 94-109). ReA-INC:9 (95% CI 6-15), PREV:91 (95% CI 78-106). Conclusion: This is the first population-based study estimating annual incidence and prevalence rates of the most common rheumatological disorders in the Czech...
The effect of nutrition on bone metabolism
Švejkovská, Klára ; Živná, Helena (advisor) ; Horák, Pavel (referee) ; Kutílek, Štěpán (referee)
The effect of nutrition on bone metabolism The bone has a function for support and protection, and is also a place for hematopoiesis and for mineral homeostasis. The subject of interest of this thesis is to evaluate the effect of chosen proteins, amino acids, iron and the conditions such as long-term under-nutrition, short-term starving and repeated blood withdrawals on the bone parameters - the length and the diameter of the bone, the width of corticalis, and the mechanical properties - resistance to bending, tension and torsion. There were evaluated changes in the concentration of bones markers, changes in the bone mineral density and changes in lean mass and adipose mass in healthy adult males of the Wistar rats . During my doctorate studies I was studying the effect of these components on the bones. In the 1st experiment the rats were fed by the chosen proteins and amino acids: glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acids- valine, leucine and izoleucine (BCAA), and caseine (KAS) ad libitum. Further we monitored the effect of one-week realimantation by standard laboratory diet (SLD) after long-term supplementation by the diet enriched by the above mentioned proteins and amino acids. The group fed by SLD ad libitum was the control group. In the 2nd experiment the effect of paired-feeding of the...
Relation of Soluble Factors of Immune System to Fenotype of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies
Klein, Martin ; Vencovský, Jiří (advisor) ; Hrnčíř, Zbyněk (referee) ; Horák, Pavel (referee)
Introduction: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (myositis, IIM) are heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases, characterized particularly by proximal skeletal muscle weakness. Heretogeneity of myositis is based on different pathogenetic mechanisms which may be reflected by variable imunophenotypic response in individual subtypes. Objectives: The aim of this work was to explore the associations and influence of soluble factors of immune system in patient's sera on phenotypic characteristics and subtypes of IIM, to describe their expression in inflammed muscle tissue and study their eventual role in pathogenesis by analysis of effect on immune and muscle cells in vitro. Results: We have described prevalence and characteristics of joint involvement in myositis patients and its significant association with anti-Jo-1 autoantibody. Further we confirmed the relation of anti-HMGCR antibody to immune mediated necrotizing myopathy, its tight relation to statins and recent increase in incidence. We showed inverse association of IFNα serum levels with muscle activity detected on MRI. Clinical activity positively correlated with IFN type-I pathway activation in patients with dermatomyositis. We also show positive correlation of resistin levels and clinical activity and correlation of activity...
The Organization of Repatriation of Displaced Persons in Czechoslovakia after WWII
Kasíková, Jana ; Čechurová, Jana (advisor) ; Horak, Pavel (referee)
The Organization of Repatriation of Displaced Persons in Czechoslovakia after World War II. Bc. et Bc. Jana Kasíková Abstract Analyzing the social aspects of the repatriation process of those forced out of their home countries to Czechoslovakia during WW2, this thesis first describes the communication and cooperation of the Czechoslovakian exile government in London with international organizations, particularly with UNRRA and SHAEF. Furthermore, the social, health, transportation and financial impact of creating and maintaining the supporting structures for repatriating displaced persons is explored, with both governmental and non-governmental perspective. Special attention is given to the participation of the general public, e.g. donations, volunteering, media coverage and public relations. The final chapter then explores the organizational structure of the repatriation process in Czechoslovakia. Specific communication between Czechoslovakian and French institutions is presented as an insight into international cooperation. Keywords: repatriation, the return after the Second World War, Displaced Persons, UNRRA, post-war media, relation of repatriation with France
Vliv vybraných látek ovlivňujících centrální nervový systém na kostní metabolismus
Fekete, Soňa ; Živný, Pavel (advisor) ; Horák, Pavel (referee) ; Nobilis, Milan (referee)
The increase in life expectancy of the world population is associated with challenges regarding health issues. For instance, osteoporosis is a medical condition mostly observed in elderly people, in which the quality and quantity of the bone are severely affected. Not only for women but also for men, osteoporosis is recognized as an important public health issue. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder and is a result of loss of skeletal mass. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue and an increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The longterm use of drugs such as antiepileptics and antidepressants could affect the onset of osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of orchidectomy, the effect of newer antiepileptic (levetiracetam, lacosamide, topiramat, lamotrigine) and antidepressive drugs (mirtazapine, venlafaxine and trazodone) on bone metabolism in healthy male Wistar rats. The first specific aim was to determine the effect of orchidectomy on bone metabolism in rats. We found that after 12 weeks post-orchidectomy there was a negative effect on bone metabolism in rats. These results established these animals as suitable models for...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 39 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
19 HORÁK, Pavel
39 HORÁK, Petr
4 Horák, Patrik
39 Horák, Petr
19 Hořák, Pavel
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