National Repository of Grey Literature 28 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Effect of Nanoparticles on Plant Metabolism
Cyrusová, Tereza ; Szotáková, Barbora (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee) ; Smrček, Stanislav (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Mgr. Tereza CYRUSOVÁ Supervisor: prof. Ing. Barbora SZOTÁKOVÁ, Ph.D. Consultant: RNDr. Radka PODLIPNÁ, Ph.D. Title of Doctoral Thesis: Effect of Nanoparticles on Plant Metabolism Along with the expansion of nanotechnologies, which are used in many disciplines, the field of nanotoxicology has recently been developed. It deals with the negative effects of engineered nanoparticles on the environment and biota. Considerable attention has already been paid to the toxicity of nanoparticles to plants, however, the mechanisms responsible for their effects are not fully understood yet. At the same time, the possible positive effect of nanoparticles on plants has been investigated in recent years. The aim of our work was to study and evaluate the effect of nanoparticles on the growth of selected plant species and to evaluate their phytotoxicity. We focused on the study of nanoparticles in the form of metal oxides. The content of accumulated metals in germinating plants of mustard (Sinapis alba L.), in in vitro cultures of true-fox sedge (Carex vulpina L.) and the concentration of metal ions released into the culture media were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). and inductively...
Physiological changes of cereals under temperature stress
Kantová, Anežka ; Vítámvás, Pavel (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
Cereals are among the oldest crops that have been grown and used by humans as important component of their diet. It is an important source of livelihood for the human population and have a wide range of uses, mainly in the food industry. Cereals generally serve as a source of energy in the diet, due to the high starch content. The most commonly grown types of cereals are especially wheat, barley, rye, rice, corn, but there may be other species such as oats and millet. However, even cereals do not avoid the problems associated with the action of abiotic stress factors. Their effect on all plants is manifested by a decrease in vitality, but in crops - such as cereals - mainly by a decrease in yield. Due to the reduction in yield, breeding of resistant cereal genotypes is now in the primary interest of breeders. This work summarizes the basic principles of the action of heat/cold stress on plants and explains the reactions of various types of cereals to these abiotic stress factors. Key words: proteome, physiology, cereals, temperature stres, yield, abiotic stres
Morphological, physiological and proteomic changes of cereals under abiotic stress
Kantová, Anežka ; Vítámvás, Pavel (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
Cereals are among the oldest crops that have been grown and used by humans as important component of their diet. It is an important source of livelihood for the human population and have a wide range of uses, mainly in the food industry. Cereals generally serve as a source of energy in the diet, due to the high starch content. The most commonly grown types of cereals are especially wheat, barley, rye, rice, corn, but there may be other species such as oats and millet. However, even cereals do not avoid the problems associated with the action of abiotic stress factors. Their effect on all plants is manifested by a decrease in vitality, but in crops - such as cereals - mainly by a decrease in yield. Due to the reduction in yield, breeding of resistant cereal genotypes is now in the primary interest of breeders. This work summarizes the basic principles of the action of abiotic stress on plants and explains the reactions of various types of cereals to abiotic stress factors. Key words: proteome, physiology, cereals, abiotic stress, yield
Using of Analytical Methods for Study of Adaptation Mechanisms of Festuca Rubra L. Plant
Paučová, Michaela ; Haisel, Daniel (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
Due to abiotic stress factors, such as excess of electromagnetic radiation, high and low temperature, drought, moisture or salinity, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living organisms which have a negative impact on the proper functioning of vital organs, metabolic pathways and ultimately, existence, are formed. In the case of a plant, this is in particular a limited activity of the photosynthetic apparatus which can lead to the death of the plant. All of analysis were preceded by the collection of Festuca rubra L. samples from different locations in the south-western part of Norway. The locations were different in their temperature (6,5; 9,5 and 10,5řC) and moisture (600, 1200, 2000 and 2700 mm). Then all samples were cultivated in four climaboxes where combinations of four "extreme" temperatures and moistures (moist/cold, moist/warm, dry/cold and dry/warm) were set. Experimentally this work was focused on the extraction of ascorbate peroxidase as an antioxidant enzyme, phenolic substances and plant pigments present in Red Fescue (Festuca rubra L.) as a model organism. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase was quantitatively determined by spectrophotometric reduction of nitrobluetetrazolium, the phenolic content was evaluated spectrophotometrically by the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the plant pigments...
Analysis of selected parameters inbred and hybrid maize stressed by flooding
Čečetka, Petr ; Kočová, Marie (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
Flooding is an important stress factor that influences the growth of plants and their production. Anthropogenic activity is causing gradual changes in the climate, consequently triggering changes in the distribution of precipitation. This leads to the conditions alternating between optimal, draughts, and excessive flooding that the plants have to cope with. The aim of my diploma thesis was to evaluate the consequences of flooding and the subsequent restoration of normal cultivating conditions of two inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) (2023 and CE704) and their reciprocal hybrids (2023xCE704, CE704x2023) that were exposed to the stress of flooding and subsequent restoration during several phases of their ontogenetic growth. For both the plants exposed to flooding and the subsequent restoration and the plants grown in optimal conditions only, there were several morphologic and physiological parameters, parameters related to the water status, and parameters that determine the extent of the damage done to the cellular structure or characterize the defense mechanisms employed by the plant in reaction to the stress. Flooding of the plants often led to an increase in their transpiration speed, stomatal conductivity, MDA and H2O2 contents, and catalase activity. For other parameters, the flooding usually...
The physiological and proteomic characterisation of winter oilseed rape upon abiotic stress
Urban, Milan ; Vítámvás, Pavel (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee) ; Valentová, Olga (referee)
- Ph.D. thesis - Milan Urban, 2017 In some years, the agricultural production of oilseed rape, an important crop in the Czech Republic, is - besides biotic stress - facing the problem of damage caused by frost or drought. Together with special attention paid to proteins revealing responses between crop genotypes with differential abiotic stress tolerance levels we reviewed possible applications of proteomic results in crop breeding programs aimed at an improvement of crop stress tolerance (paper 1). For first original result, cold temperature was imposed upon non-vernalized plants in the stage of leaf rosette. The article (paper 2) shows a significant correlation between frost tolerance (FT), dehydrin (DHN) accumulation, and photosynthetic acclimation in five cultivars (cvs). Newly, the specific DHN D97 was shown to accumulate and other DHNs were shown to have qualitative differences in accumulation. These results imply that proper FT assessment is based on rapid photosynthetic acclimation together with higher accumulation of protective compounds. Drought stress (paper 3) was imposed in the water- demanding stem prolongation phase before flowering, because late-spring drought before and during flowering decreases the yield and seed quality significantly. This paper newly describes two water-uptake...
Úloha brassinosteroidů v odpovědi různých genotypů kukuřice na změny v zásobování vodou.
Trubanová, Nina ; Rothová, Olga (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been recognized to alleviate damages caused by drought stress and to enhance tolerance to water deficit. Soaking of maize kernels before the sowing in solution with different 24-epibrassinolide concentrations (especially the 10-8 M) had a positive effect on growth of plants before and after the stress period, although it did not affected relative water content and photosynthetic parameters. After the recovery under optimal conditions there were no differences among the treatments. When compared to spraying, soaking of maize kernels was not proved to have any advantages, though its positive effect on plants germination under water deficit conditions could be possible. Based on the results of the second season experiment it is not possible to deduce the role of exogenous BRs application (spraying with 24-epibrassinolide) or endogenous BRs biosynthesis (spraying with biosynthesis inhibitor - brassinazole) in maize plants subjected to water deficit. However, decrease in relative water content in contrast to chlorophylls content increase during the days following after drought stress onset in both cultivars (contrastive in drought sensitivity) challenges for further investigation of this problem. Understanding the role of BRs in plant drought tolerance and resistance is...
Response of different genotypes of Zea mays L. and Vicia faba L. treated with brassinosteroids to water deficit
Kuklíková, Radka ; Rothová, Olga (advisor) ; Hnilička, František (referee)
This work monitors the response of plants to the application of a solution of synthetic brassinosteroid (5-fluor-3α,17β-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-6-on) under drought stress conditions and subsequent restoration of water availability. The response of two plant species was monitored under six-day period of cessation of watering and under six-day period of renewed optimal water supply. The experiments were carried out on plants with different type of photosynthesis - C3 plant Vicia faba L. and C4 plant Zea mays L.. For both plant species, three varieties/genotypes were used. Photosynthetic, morphological and developmental characteristics were monitored. The brassinosteroid treatment influenced more the morphological than the photosynthetic characteristics. The content of photosynthetic pigments was influenced more than the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The differences in morphological characteristics between individual varieties/genotypes were observed. The response to the application of brassinosteroid was observed especially for drought-sensitive variety/genotype. Application of brassinosteroid caused increase of the dry mass of leaves and roots, the height to leaf , the height of the whole plant and its increment under stress and post-stress periods in both plant species. The content of...

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