
Essential problems of random walks
Michálek, Matěj ; Hlubinka, Daniel (advisor) ; Pawlas, Zbyněk (referee)
In this paper, we cover some essential problems of (simple) random walks in one, two and three dimensions. At the begining, we work only in one dimension. We find the probability of a position on a line at particular time. Then we study returns to origin and examine if return to origin is certain. Also, we look into a theorem called the arc sine law. Furthermore, we generalise some of those problems into two and three dimensions. We investigate a probability of a position in time and space and returns to origin. 1


Actuarial and Exposurebased Models for Hail Peril
Drobuliak, Matúš ; Pešta, Michal (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
Title: Actuarial and Exposurebased Models for Hail Peril Author: Bc. Matúš Drobuliak Department: Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics Supervisor: RNDr. Michal Pešta, Ph.D., Department of Probability and Mathe matical Statistics Abstract: This thesis covers an introduction to catastrophe modelling and focuses on statistical methods for extreme events. This includes methods of estimating parameters of claim distribution with a focus on probability weighted moments estimation technique. Furthermore, times series modelling, skew tdistribution, and two model clustering techniques are examined as well. This is later utilised in the practical application part of this thesis, which uses real data provided by an insurance company operating in the Czech Republic. Probability distribution fitting of large claims caused by hailstorms and Monte Carlo simulation of future losses are demonstrated later. Keywords: Catastrophe modelling, Hail peril, Probability weighted moments, Extreme events, ARMAGARCH, Monte Carlo simulation iii


Halfspace median
Říha, Adam ; Nagy, Stanislav (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
In this thesis we introduce the halfspace median, which is one of the possibilities how to extend the classical median from a onedimensional space to spaces with several dimensions. Firstly we deal with the halfspace depth, which is a function that assigns to each point the minimum probability of a halfspace that contains it. Then we define the halfspace median and show its existence. Partially, we also deal with special types of symmetry measures for convex sets and random vectors and what follows from them, such as when the median and the center of symmetry are the same point. We also study the boundaries that, under certain assumptions, enclose the depth. We state sufficient conditions for acquiring the halfspace median, which are determined by the socalled ray basis theorem. Finally we look at the similarities of this topic with convex geometry.


LoveYoung Inequality and Its Consequences
Sýkora, Adam ; Čoupek, Petr (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
This thesis is focused on proving the LoveYoung inequality and clarifying the manner in which it relates to a fractional Brownian motion. To begin with, several estimates alongside the concept of pvariation of a func tion are presented. The connection between functions of finite pvariation and regulated functions is then highlighted and used to prove the aforementioned LoveYoung inequality. Deficiency of the pathwise approach to stochastic in tegration is recognised and later discussed amongst the properties of fractional Brownian motions. This constitutes the main application of the featured theory which is the integration with respect to irregular functions. 1


Poisson autoregression
Böhmová, Karolína ; Hudecová, Šárka (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
This thesis deals with INGARCH models for a count time series. Main emphasis is placed on a linear INARCH model. Its properties are derived. Several methods of estimation are introduced  maximum likelihood method, least squares method and its modifications  and later compared in a simulation study. Main properties and maximum likelihood estimation for INGARCH(1,1) model are stated. Higher order linear INGARCH models and nonlinear INGARCH models are discussed briefly. An application of the presented models on time series of car accidents is given.


Depth of twodimensional data
Dočekalová, Denisa ; Šír, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
In this paper we summarize the basic information about halfplane depth function. It consists of two parts. In the first part we deal with the halfplane depth based on the distribution function, we describe its basic properties and define the concepts of depth contours, central regions and the halfplane median. We also deal with these concepts in the rest of the paper with the main focus on the halfplane median. In the second part of this work we deal with the halfplane depth based on the random choice with the main focus on data visualization. The used methods for visualization are the display of depth contours and the bagplot. This work includes pictures of depth contours for specific distributions which were gained by implementation of an algorithm in the software Mathematica. 1


Nonparametric tests of independence
Kmeťková, Diana ; Pawlas, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
The main objective of this thesis is the presentation regarding the problem of testing independence between two random variables in the nonparametric model of continuous cumulative distribution functions. Firstly, the reader is informed with basic notions from the theory of independence and rank tests. Afterwards, few of the most common methods for testing independence are introduced. In the beginning, the test based on Pearson's correlation coefficient is mentioned as a representative for parametric tests, then we continue with nonparametric tests, such as test based on Spearman's, Kendall's and distance correlation coefficient. We focus in better detail on Hoeffding's test of independence, which results to be consistent against all alternatives in the model of continuous cumulative distribution functions. In the end, we compare and evaluate presented methods for testing independence using simulations in R environment.


Continuous market models with stochastic volatility
Petrovič, Martin ; Maslowski, Bohdan (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
Vilela Mendes et al. (2015), based on the discovery of longrange dependence in the volatility of stock returns, proposed a stochastic volatility continuous mar ket model where the volatility is given as a transform of the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and studied its NoArbitrage and completeness properties under va rious assumptions. We investigate the possibility of generalization of their results from fBm to a wider class of Hermite processes. We have reworked and completed the proofs of the propositions in the cited article. Under the assumption of indepen dence of the stock price and volatility driving processes the model is arbitragefree. However, apart from a case of a special relation between the drift and the volatility, the model is proved to be incomplete. Under a different assumption that there is only one source of randomness in the model and the volatility driving process is bounded, the model is arbitragefree and complete. All the above results apply to any Hermite process driving the volatility. 1


Incomplete Poisson samples
Zeman, Ondřej ; Dvořák, Jiří (advisor) ; Hlubinka, Daniel (referee)
The topic of my bachelor thesis is studying truncated Poisson sample which is a part of a sample from Poisson distribution, where zero observations are missing. The main goal is estimating the size of the original sample and the parameter λ of the Poisson distribution. In the first chapter I mainly focus on deriving three types of estimators of these parameters and I describe their basic properties. Second chapter contains simulations where the estimators from the first chapter are compared based on the estimates of relative bias and relative mean square error. Eventually in the third chapter I focus on the asymptotic properties of derived estimators with emphasis on consistency of estimators. 1


Selected topics of random walks
Filipová, Anna ; Hlubinka, Daniel (advisor) ; Beneš, Viktor (referee)
The theme of this thesis are symmetric random walks. We define different types of paths and prove the reflection principle. Then, based on the paths, we define random walks. The thesis also deals with probabilities of returns to the origin and first returns to the origin, further with probabilities of number of changes of sign or returns to the origin up to a certain time. We also define the maximum of the random walk and the first passage through a certain point. In the second chapter, we solve several problems, which form the proofs of some theorems from the first chapter or complement the first chapter in a different way. For example, we prove geometrically that the number of paths of one type equals the number of paths of another type or we compute the probability that there occurs a certain number of changes of sign up to a given time.
