National Repository of Grey Literature 3 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The role of creatine and branched chain amino acids supplementation in muscle physiology and its possible clinical use
Zacpálek, Pavel ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Heleš, Mário (referee)
(in English) Creatine kinase system could be considered the energetic frontline of a cell. It creates and maintains a cellular energy storage and at the same time enables the very fastest response to a high energy demand. Aims of this thesis were to thoroughly describe the creatine kinase system, its role in the energy metabolism and metabolism of creatine molecule itself. As a popular nutritional supplement, there was an emphasis on creatine's impact on the physiology of skeletal muscle and also its higher intake. Furthermore some of the creatine-related disorders were described, as well as research of their treatment. Lastly, the branch-chained amino acids were researched for possible synergic effect with creatine, connection between these two was found through the mTOR signalling pathway.
Localization of cytosolic isoforms of creatine kinase and hexokinase in hypertrophied heart
Heleš, Mário ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Mrózková, Petra (referee)
Hypertrophy of the heart is tightly bound to the metabolic adaptations and a cellular remodeling. An important and dynamic system contributing to the maintenance of energy homeostasis is the creatine kinase system (CK). The microcompartmentalization of CK isoforms maintains the flux of ATP between energy production and consumption sites and ensures the effectiveness of the CK system. Changes in expression and activity of CK isoforms during hypertrophy are already well described - to extend this knowledge, this thesis quantified changes in association of cytosolic CK isoforms and sarcomeres. Another essential system, maintaining homeostasis in overloaded heart is composed of the hexokinase (HK) isoforms, located also in cytosol and in mitochondrial compartment. HK1 is associated with mitochondria under physiological conditions, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential, while HK2 is located mainly in the cytosol. Under stress conditions translocation of HK2 into mitochondrial membrane occurs, which increases the direct supply of ADP to complex V of the respiratory chain and decreases the probability of apoptosis activation. We analyzed association of individual HK isoforms with mitochondria within the second aim of this thesis. Third aim of the thesis was to characterize changes in the CK and M...
The role of Akt / protein kinase B in healthy and hypertrophied heart
Heleš, Mário ; Žurmanová, Jitka (advisor) ; Hrdlička, Jaroslav (referee)
Protein kinase B, or Akt kinase is expressed in almost all tissues. Two main isoforms in heart are Akt1 and Akt2, which are responsible for regulation of metabolism, growth and survival of cardiomyocytes. Akt kinase is among other pathways stimulated by insulin receptor and mechanoreceptor cascades and its main targets are mTORC1, AMPK and GSK- 3β. Akt kinase is activated in presence of chronic hemodynamic overload of heart. In dependence of intensity and duration of overload, Akt participate in triggering of either adaptive, fully reversible hypertrophy or detrimental irreversible form of hypertrophy, which causes impairment of pumping function of heart and can lead to heart failure. Many more factors with complex interactions participate in cardiac hypertrophy beside Akt kinase. Key words: heart, hypertrophy, Akt/protein kinase B, cardiac remodeling, insulin- like growth factor

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