National Repository of Grey Literature 77 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Factors influencing initiation of breastfeeding
Šámalová, Pavlína ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Kaňková, Šárka (referee)
Breastfeeding is a natural way of mammalian offspring nutrition and we can see analogous situation in human newborns. In addition to nutrition itself, breastfeeding has a wide range of other positive effects on the mother and her child. Many factors can influence the onset of breastfeeding and its successful continuation (BMI, alcohol consumption during pregnancy or early mother-infant contact). The main aim of this thesis was to test the effect of mother-newborn contact and the medical procedures in early postpartum care on the onset of lactation. Further, we aimed to investigate other possible factors that influence the initiation of lactation. We found that attaching newborn to the breast in the delivery room significantly decreased the time from birth to the onset of lactation. Moreover, the onset of lactation was significantly positively affected by parity, BMI before pregnancy and negatively by presence of a close person in the delivery room, and illness during pregnancy. To investigate breastfeeding-related postpartum care, we carried out a one week internship at the maternity hospital. We can influence some of the factors by education of the society and in early postpartum care. Keywords Breastfeeding, newborn, early contact, delivery, lactation 5
Sympatric cultural divergence and its evolutionary significance
Tureček, Petr ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Lang, Martin (referee) ; Duda, Pavel (referee)
Interaction of genes and culture is crucial for human evolution. Human ethnic groups and subcultures frequently function as discrete units, and people clearly distinguish between in- group and out-group individuals on a cultural basis. This thesis aims to model the formation of distinct cultural clusters, cultural equivalents of distinct species. Historical development of theories of blending inheritance led to the formation of biometric parallels to Mendelism. Galton-Pearson model of nonparticulate inheritance with constant offspring variance, the most influential model of continuous inheritance ever formulated, was based on measurements of genetically transmitted traits. Ronald Fisher later demonstrated, that this type of inheritance directly stems from polygenic traits with additive genetic variance. Dan Sperber's metaphor of culture space allows integrating any continuous models of position inheritance into computer simulations of the evolution of culture. Most studies today, however, employ particulate models of cultural inheritance. The exceptional works of Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman pioneer the continuous models of cultural inheritance applying Galton-Pearson model to culture. Galton-Pearson inheritance is, unfortunately, not a very good model of cultural transmission. Parental...
Social communication in the house mouse (Mus musculus)
Černá, Zuzana ; Stopka, Pavel (advisor) ; Havlíček, Jan (referee)
Chemical communication is the most important way of communication in the house mouse. Traditionally, the urine of the house mouse was the most studied source of signals. Typical way of scent marking, relatively simple way of collection and analysis was the main reason. The analysis of physical interaction of two mouse conspecifics has shown that there are several other very important sources of chemical signals. My ethological analysis has revealed that during the first interaction of two individuals of opposite sex, the most investigated body part is the orofacial region, and that the oral contact with salivary exchange is very frequent. At the same time, the results of this research have demonstrated the significant influence of reproductive status on behavioural patterns in individuals of both sex. One of these important sources of chemical signals is the saliva. During the interaction between two individuals, saliva is actively investigated by sniffing and physically exchanged. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for chemical analysis of saliva. It has revealed that saliva is a sexually dimorphic signal, which may represent individual odour profiles. Uniqueness of this odour is not based on the presence of special substances typical just for one sex, unique is the blend,...
Mechanisms of human body odour production
Hrubová, Noemi ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Stopková, Romana (referee)
The sterile secret of skin glands is not immediately odoriferous. The characteristic body odour is released after microorganism transformation of the secreted compounds. The aim of the work is to elucidate the mechanisms of the body odour production. The major contributor to the body odour are volatile fatty acids hydrolysed from glutamine precursors, structurally unusual long- chain fatty acids or lipids. Another component are sulphur compounds, mainly secreted as the Cys-Gly-(S) conjugates, and steroid substances. The genus Corynebacterium is associated with these transformations and intense body odour. The composition of the resident microflora varies depending on age and gender. Axillary odour with large apocrine secretion has probably biggest importance for human chemical communication. Apocrine glands secretion starts during puberty and decreases in postmenopausal women. There are quantitative differences between gender composition of sweat. In the Asian population is more common the recessive homozygosity of the ABCC11 gene which is associated with lower body odour intensity. Also MHC proteins effect body odour and they seem to play a role in mate choice. To some extent, the environmental factors such as diet or emotions influence body odour. Knowledge of mechanisms behind body odour...
Female orgasm and its relation to autoerotic and dyadic sexual behavior
Krejčová, Lucie ; Klapilová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Weiss, Petr (referee) ; Havlíček, Jan (referee)
The thesis focuses on female orgasm and its relation to autoerotic activities and dyadic sexual behavior. The first theoretical part focuses on theories describing the function of female orgasms and factors influencing its occurrence. The second part consists of four articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The first article is a review, focusing on the development of expert opinions over time, with specific regard to female orgasms and the division between clitoral and vaginal orgasm. The second article discusses the role of general relationship and sexual satisfaction with respect to the female orgasm. The third article examined the association between first autoerotic experiences and the occurrence of vaginal orgasm. Finally, the fourth article concerned the frequency of dyadic sexual activity and its relation to vaginal orgasm. The findings within each article indicate that autoerotic and dyadic sexual activities together with general relationship and sexual satisfaction have a positive influence on the occurrence of female orgasms.
Mate choice based on olfactory imprinting-like effect
Kuncová, Lucie ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Špinka, Marek (referee)
Previous studies have shown that women choose partners resembling their fathers in various characteristics. However, none of the studies have focused on woman's father-partner body odour similarity, even though body odour plays an important role in mate choice. The main aim of our study was to test whether the woman's father and partner body odour is similar and whether the rating of this similarity was affected by the body odour's intensity and pleasantness. Further, we wanted to know whether the quality of woman's relationship with her father during her childhood influences the body odour similarity. We also tested the effect of woman's father-partner body odour similarity on sexual and relationship satisfaction. Twenty-five women with their fathers and partners participated in the study. Every respondent completed a set of questionnaires, in addition, fathers and partners provided samples of their body odours. Body odour similarity was rated by independent female raters (N=128). According to the results of our study, body odour of woman's father and partner is significantly similar. The body odour was also similar in intensity and pleasantness. The quality of woman's relationship with her father does not affect woman's father-partner body odour similarity. Nevertheless, this similarity...
Effect of hormonal contraception use during relationship formation on subsequent relationship satisfaction
Fiurašková, Kateřina ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Pastor, Zlatko (referee)
Results of previous studies testing the influence of oral contraceptives on relationship satisfaction have produced mixed results. These discrepancies might be explained by the "Congruency hypothesis", which predicts that relationship satisfaction is determined by the congruency (or non-congruency) between current use of oral contraceptives and their use during relationship formation. This is because oral contraceptives appear to alter women's mate preferences, so that attraction to their partner may have changed in non-congruent women. Indeed, previous studies have shown that women in a non-congruent state were less sexually satisfied with their partner, even though they were more generally satisfied in the non- sexual aspects of the relationship. The aim of our study was to test the congruency hypothesis on two groups of couples (couples attending the Center of Assisted Reproduction, and a comparison group of pregnant women and their partners; note that in neither group were women currently using oral contraception). Based on previous studies, we expected that women who used oral contraceptives at the time of relationship formation would report lower sexual satisfaction with their partner than women who were non-users during relationship formation. The study involved a total of 660 couples from...
Relationship between reactivity of immune system and quality of human body odour
Schwambergová, Dagmar ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
It was previously proposed that expression of secondary sexual characteristics may provide cues to individual's immunocompetence. Body odour could partly serve as one of such characteristics, which provides crucial information about potentional partner even in humans. The main aim of the diploma thesis was to test a relationship between body odour quality and reactivity of immune system. In empirical part of the study we collected body odour samples from 21 men aged between 18-40 years before and two weeks after the vaccination against hepatitis A and B (Twinrix) and meningococcus (Menveo). The participant's blood samples were obtained three times to determine levels of IgG and IgM antibodies (markers of reactivity of immune system), testosterone, cortisol and CRP levels. In the second part of the study, a panel of 88 female raters aged 18-40 assessed body odour samples for their attractiveness, intensity and healthiness. In contrast to our expectations, we found no significant association between levels of antibodies induced by vaccination and perceived body odour attractiveness and health. Simultaneously, there were no significant changes in body odour ratings, neither in levels of testosterone and cortisol ratings, before and after the vaccination. However, we found a negative association...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 77 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
1 Havlíček, J.
5 Havlíček, Jakub
14 Havlíček, Jiří
10 Havlíček, Josef
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