National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Physiological basis of extended longevity in termite kings and queens - is activation of telomerase mechanism linked with extended longevity of termites?
Pangrácová, Marie ; Hanus, Robert (advisor) ; Kodrík, Dalibor (referee)
- Extended longevity and high fecundity are two phenomena typical for reproductive castes (queens, eventually kings) of eusocial insects. In my thesis, we explore the hypothesis that the longevity of reproductives in the termite Prorhinotermes simplex is linked with the activation of the telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase is well known for its life-extension functions, due especially to its capacity to prolong the telomeric ends of chromosomes. Therefore, we studied here the gene expression of: (1) the gene TERT coding for the catalytic subunit of the telomerase and (2) the genes of the main endocrine regulatory pathways, known to be responsible for the control of reproduction and longevity in insects. Expression dynamics of these genes were measured in sterile and reproductive castes of P. simplex during their development and sexual maturation. Based on our results obtained from the TERT expression analyses and their comparison with telomerase enzyme activities, we assume that the telomerase action in the long-lived reproductive individuals is regulated at a post-transcription level. Furthermore, we observed in reproductive castes a simultaneous upregulation of some transcription variants of vitellogenin and the genes for insulin signalling pathways. We can, therefore, conclude that in...
Biology of the soldier caste in the termite genus Prorhinoterme (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
Hanus, Robert ; Štys, Pavel (advisor) ; Žďárek, Jan (referee) ; Korb, Judith (referee)
Ontogeny of soldiers in Prorhinotermes simplex The soldiers were found to develop from larvae of the second up to the eighth instar, via a short (13-17 days) presoldier stage. The early soldier instars were found exclusively in incipient colonies while the mature colony contained late instar soldiers only. The first soldiers occur early in the incipient colonies; as soon as one year a er the establishment of these colonies a high proportion of soldiers was observed, which is comparable to that in mature colonies. The abrupt change in the external anatomy occurs in two steps. During the larva-presoldier moult, the head increases in length but only slightly in width. During the presoldier-soldier moult, both the length and width of the head increase markedly and the typical cordate shape is attained; the relative size of the pronotum increases considerably. The long falcate mandibles develop mainly during the larva-presoldier moult. One antennal segment is added during these two moults. With increasing instar age of soldiers a relative increase of the pronotum and the head size in its posterior region was observed. No functional differences in external anatomy were found among the six soldier instars. The composition of the frontal gland secretion is similar in the six soldier instars, an...
Evolution of Olfaction in Mammals with Focus on Superorder Laurasiatheria
Vondráčková, Kamila ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Hanus, Robert (referee)
The evolution history of mammals is connected with the dominance of smell and olfactory communication, which are important sense and communication channels also in recent forms. Two systems are involved in detecting and processing the molecules of scent, the main and the accessory olfactory system. These systems distinguish different types of scents, odorants and pheromones, which are also detected by different types of receptors. Significant factors for comparison of the ability of smell between mammals are both the amount of olfactory genes and the size and complexity of olfactory structures. The main emphasis in this thesis is put on the sensory part of the olfactory system and hence there is effort to support characterization of particular taxa by genomic studies. The ability of smell, respectively amount and variation of olfactory gene repertoires has been formed during the evolution on different circumstances and the ecological adaptation played a great role. The amount and diversity of olfactory receptors vary a lot in mammals and range through anosmatic Cetaceans and microsmatic bats to macrosmatic carnivores. Present thesis is focused to the superorder Laurasiatheria because of its extensive ecological differentiation and diversification of smell abilities (from anosmatic to macrosmatic...
The role of male external glands in sexual behaviour of insect
Dvořák, Tomáš ; Kotyková Varadínová, Zuzana (advisor) ; Hanus, Robert (referee)
The body of some insect's males is covered by glands, which females are interested in during or after courtship and copulation. Female can palpate this glands or feed on their secretion. My bachelor thesis describes these glands in five orders of insect, where they are known: Zygentoma, Zoraptera, Coleoptera and especially Orthoptera and Blattodea. In the introduction i describe briefly their histology, morphology and ontogeny. But the main part of the work deal with their ethological and ecological function. This glands have four main functions. They can serve to maneuver female into proper position and allow the male to clasp her genitalia. Another function is prolonging of copulation, which enable the male to transfer more sperm. Glands can also provide nutritious secret, through it the male directly affects the female fitness. The last function is simple signal of male quality, which through the production of secret demonstrates his good condition. The role of the glands is often uncertain and their functions are often overlaping.
New case of mixed reproductive strategy and its adaptive significance in the neotropical termite Silvestritermes minutus (Termitidae: Syntermitinae)
Křivánek, Jan ; Hanus, Robert (advisor) ; Žďárek, Jan (referee)
Thanks to the progress in genetic methods in population ecology, many critical discoveries were recently made in the field of reproductive strategies of social insect. Among them is the description of mixed reproductive strategies, combining advantages of sexual reproduction with thelytokous parthenogenesis. The queens of such species produce sterile castes through classical sexual process from fertilized eggs, while future queens develop asexually from unfertilized eggs. This original breeding system was first described in several genera of ants, but it was found very recently, that it is not restricted to social Hymenoptera, since it has been identified also in the phylogenetically remote eusocial clade of termites. Switching between the sexual process and thelytokous parthenogenesis, now known as Asexual Queen Succession (AQS), which enables a continuity of genetically almost identical queen generations after the death of the founding primary queen, was first reported only in one genus of lower termites, i.e. Reticulitermes. Recently, our research group participated at the identification of AQS in four other species from two subfamilies in higher termites. One of these species is Silvestritermes minutus. This species is locally abundant in French Guiana and lives in small, well shaped nests on...
The role of juvenile hormone in ontogeny of burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae)
Máslo, Petr ; Šípek, Petr (advisor) ; Hanus, Robert (referee)
Burying beetles play an important role in ecosystems by removal of cadavers of small vertebrates. By competing other necrophagous insects and micro-organisms, they may contribute to reducing health risks. They are also interesting for their complex parental care of offspring. This paper describes the role of the juvenile hormone in the life history of burying beetles, breeding and parental care in particular.
Ontogeny of exaggerated structures in dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)
Žídek, Radim ; Hanus, Robert (referee) ; Šípek, Petr (advisor)
E n g l i s h a b s t r a c t Horns of scarab beetles represent a secondary sexual characters present mostly in males, to whom they serve as weapons in combats over the acces to females. In many species, two discrete male forms occur, "horned" and "hornless", which employ different reproductive strategies. Adult body size and horn morphology are determined by nutritional conditions encountered by larvae during their development. Switching between developmental pathways is accomplished by circulating levels of juvenile hormone (JH) which reflect body size, and genetically determined threshold of sensitivity to it. When body size is larger then threshold, horn growth occur, whereas if it's not, a brief pulse of ecdysone reprogramme the development and hornless adult emerge. Reprogramming the development encompass modifications of the insulin receptor pathway as well as changes in exact domains of genes expression envolved in specifying the proximodistal axis of the developing horn. Development of horns is morphologically reminiscent that of other insect appendages, with which it shares the expression of genes wingless, decapentaplegic, Distal-less, dachshund, homothorax, aristaless and EGFR, parts of gene regulatory network ensuring origin of the outgrowth of the cuticle. Some of them are expressed through...
Analytical methods Used in the Studies on Chemical Ecology of Termites
Krasulová, Jana ; Hanus, Robert ; Sillam-Dusses, David ; Žáček, Petr ; Jiroš, Pavel ; Šobotník, Jan ; Kalinová, Blanka ; Bosáková, Z. ; Valterová, Irena
In this paper, I review our recent results on the trail-following communication in the Neotropical termite Glossotermes oculas (Serritermitidae) and the defensive chemistry of the African termite Psammotermes hybostoma (Rhinotermitidae). These findings belong to our current project focused on chemical ecology of critical termite genera from families Rhinotermitidae and Serritermitidae.
Oborový manuál pro prevenci a minimalizaci odpadů
INOTEX, s.r.o., Dvůr Králové n.L. ; SVÚOM s.r.o., Praha ; České centrum čistší produkce, Praha ; Koubský, Jan ; Zbořil, Josef ; Bořková, Marcela ; Marek, Jan ; Janák, Petr ; Bartušek, Pavel ; Penz, Jan ; Trojan, Václav ; Kreislová, Kateřina ; Hanus, Robert ; Ouředníková, Klára ; Novák, Libor ; Krčma, Miroslav ; Christianová, Anna
Zpráva za rok 2003 popisuje činnosti spojené s ověřováním manuálu, návrhem software a možnostmi zapojení dalších databází. Obecný manuál byl doplněn a ověřován ve vybraných podnicích textilního a papírenského průmylu a povrchové úpravy kovů.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 16 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
1 Hanus, Richard
2 Hanus, Rostislav
2 Hanuš, Radek
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