National Repository of Grey Literature 59 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The importance of endocrinefunction of adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance syndrome
Kaválková, Petra ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Karásek, David (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
(AJ) Adipose tissue produces numerous adipokines, pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and hormones which may influence the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome. The ability of adipose tissue to store lipids and thus protect other organs and tissues from ectopic lipid accumulation and development of insulin resistance (IR) is largely dependent on the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. The amount and function of these cells may be the key factor in creating "healthy" adipose tissue or on the contrary "unhealthy" adipose tissue eventually leading to metabolic derangements. The regulation of the amount of body fat by converting preadipocytes into mature adipocytes may be crucial in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. One of the reasons for development of insulin resistance can be the inhibition of the differentiation process of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes with consequent ectopic lipid accumulation caused by the secretion of preadipocyte factor - 1 (Pref - 1). Pref - 1 has been discovered recently as a protein produced by preadipocytes but not by mature adipocytes. Pref - 1 is a member of the protein family sharing similarity with epidermal growth factors which regulate the differentiation of...
Functional genomic and pharmacogenomic analysis of metabolic syndrome aspects
Krupková, Michaela ; Šeda, Ondřej (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Metabolic syndrome is a prevalent disease characterized by concurrent manifestation of insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and other hemodynamic and metabolic disorders. It has multifactorial type of inheritance and its resultant phenotype is determined by both environmental and genetic factors as well as their interactions. That is the main reason why comprehensive analysis of the genetic component of this syndrome is complicated in human population. Genetically designed experimental animal models are significant tools for analysis of genetic architecture of human complex conditions including the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this Thesis is utilization of functional and comparative genomic tools to uncover pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome aspects and their genetic determinants. We also studied pharmacogenetic interactions of these genetic determinants with drugs affecting particular components of the metabolic syndrome. Establishing and utilizing several genetically designed congenic rat strains, we undertook four different research projects focusing on pharmacogenetic interaction of all-trans retinoic acid and ondansetron with differential segment of rat chromosome 8, pharmacogenetic interaction of differential segment of rat chromosome 4 and dexamethasone, determining Plzf...
The role of GH/IGF-1 axis components in the etiopathogenesis of metabolic disturbances in type 2 diabetes mellitus and acromegaly
Toušková, Věra ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Saudek, František (referee)
(EN) GH/IGF-1 axis components (GH, growth hormone receptor (GH-R), IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)) participate in the control of glucose metabolism, inflammatory processes as well as cell proliferation and differentiation, including adipocytes and monocytes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of local mRNA expression of GH/IGF-1 axis components in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) in the development of insulin resistance and differences of adipose tissue mass in following groups of patients: obese females with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and subjects with active untreated acromegaly. A total number of 66 subjects were included in the study: obese females without type 2 diabetes mellitus (OB), obese females with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), acromegalic patients (AC) and healthy lean control subjects (C). T2DM underwent 2 weeks of very-low- calorie diet (VLCD - energy content 2500 kJ/day). According to our results we suggest that decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in adipose tissue of T2DM subjects may contribute to changes of fat differentiation capacity and the increased IGF-1R mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes in these patients may play a role in the regulation of...
Antiproliferative effects of heme catabolic pathway's products
Koníčková, Renata ; Vítek, Libor (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Farghali, Hassan (referee)
Presented work is focused on heme metabolism with the main interest in bile pigments. Recent data indicate that bilirubin is not only a waste product of the heme catabolic pathway, but also emphasize its important biological impacts, including possible antiproliferative effects. Until today metabolism of bilirubin has not been completely elucidated, which has prevented detailed evaluation of its potential anticancer action. The aim of this study was to clarify some aspects of heme catabolism with respect for antiproliferative properties of its products. Based on the fact that bilirubin potently affects carcinogenesis of the intestine, we initially investigated not properly known bilirubin metabolism by intestinal bacteria. We studied bilirubin neurotoxic effects in hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats - its distribution in the brain tissue and its degradation during pathological conditions, such as severe newborn jaundice or Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Possible approaches to improve the treatment of severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemias, combination of the phototherapy and human albumin administration were also investigated. The main reason of these studies was the fact that mechanisms of neurotoxic effects of bilirubin are predominantly identical with those, by which bilirubin inhibits cancer cells growth....
Novel metabolic regulators and proinflammatory factors in the etiopathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity: the influence of pharmacological and dietary interventions
Mráz, Miloš ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Šenolt, Ladislav (referee) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee)
NOVEL METABOLIC REGULATORS AND PROINFLAMMATORY FACTORS IN THE ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND OBESITY: THE INFLUENCE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND DIETARY INTERVENTIONS MUDr. Miloš Mráz Doctoral Thesis ABSTRACT (EN) Identifying novel factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of obesity, diabetes mellitus and their complications has become one of the primary scopes of metabolic research in the last years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of recently discovered metabolic and inflammatory regulators including fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 and chemotactic cytokines in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A total number of 182 patients were included into the study. They were divided into 3 groups - patients with obesity but without type 2 diabetes mellitus, individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy control normal-weight subjects. Selected interventions included 2 to 3 weeks of very-low-calorie diet (VLCD - energy content 2500 kJ/day), 3 months of administration of PPARα receptor agonist fenofibrate and acute hyperinsulinemia during hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. Our results indicate that the increase of circulating FGF-21 levels after VLCD and fenofibrate treatment could contribute to positive metabolic effects of these...
The importance of biosynthetic and catabolic pathway of cholesterol in inflammatory and tumor diseases
Leníček, Martin ; Vítek, Libor (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Mareček, Zdeněk (referee)
This thesis focuses on the importance of intermediate products of biosynthetic and catabolic pathway of cholesterol. The aim of the first part of the thesis is mainly to investigate, whether statins (HMG- CoA reductase inhibitors) possess antitumor properties and to compare the differences in antitumor potential of individual statins. The other part of the thesis aims at the utilization of 7α-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one (C4), a promising marker of cholesterol 7α-monooxygenase (CYP7A1) activity and bile acid malabsorption. We demonstrated antitumor effect of statins on an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. Individual statins, however, differed significantly in their efficacy, depending on their physico-chemical properties. Our data suggests, that the most likely (but not the only) mechanism of antitumor effect of statins is decreased prenylation of signaling proteins, especially Ras protooncogene. We set up a reliable method for measurement of C4, which facilitated our research in CYP7A1 regulation. We demonstrated, that promoter polymorphism -203A>C might affect CYP7A1 activity, that diurnal variability of CYP7A1 activity might be triggered by insulin, and that insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease impedes the feedback regulation of CYP7A1, which may lead to disease...
Factors affecting glucose metabolism and inflammatory response in critically ill patients
Kotulák, Tomáš ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Maruna, Pavel (referee) ; Šenolt, Ladislav (referee)
Hyperglycemia in critically ill patients was considered for many years an adaptive response to stress conditions being present in both patients with and without previous history of diabetes. Hyperglycemia is caused mainly by peripheral insulin resistance induced by the factors acting counteracting insulin signalling at the postreceptor level. Furthermore, hyperglycemia itself can then increase serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (Il-6) and interleukin-8 (Il- 8) and others. On the contrary, peripheral insulin resistance induced by pro- inflammatory cytokines may further potentiate hyperglycemia. White adipose tissue represents in addition to its energy storage function also a very active endocrine active organ. In addition to regulation of a number of metabolic processes it also significantly modulates the inflammatory response. In critically ill patients, adipose tissue changes its morphology, i.e. the adipocytes are shrinking and adipose tissue is abundantly infiltrated by macrophages. Paradoxically, overweight and obese critically ill patients have lower mortality than underweight, lean and morbidly obese subjects. In our studies, we selected population of the patients undergoing elective major cardiac surgery with extracorporeal...
Neural mechanisms in the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension in the rat
Vavřínová, Anna ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Neckář, Jan (referee)
Both sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems are involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the mostly used animal model of genetic hypertension, is characterized by multiple molecular, morphological and functional alterations at different levels of sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems. The study of young prehypertensive SHR allows to reveal the abnormalities preceding hypertension development, whereas adult SHR with established hypertension offers a better model for the treatment of human essential hypertension. The aim of my PhD Thesis was to describe abnormalities in sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems in SHR under different conditions. Firstly, ontogenetic differences which might contribute to hypertension development were determined. Secondly, the effect of chemical sympathectomy induced by guanethidine in adulthood on cardiovascular parameters and on the compensatory mechanisms counteracting the reduction of blood pressure were studied. Thirdly, stress-induced cardiovascular response and stress-induced changes of sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems were described in adult SHR. My Thesis brought several important results. The increased adrenal catecholamine content and the...
Regulatory mechanisms affecting etiopathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cinkajzlová, Anna ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Krčma, Michal (referee) ; Kříž, Jan (referee)
Subclinical inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of obesity- related complications including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages are considered important players participating in the initiation and progression of subclinical inflammation within as well as outside of adipose tissue. The first part of this dissertation thesis was focused on macrophage characterization and their quantitative and qualitative changes accompanying metabolic improvements after bariatric surgery. We have demonstrated that the number of macrophages in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced regardless of their M1 or M2 polarization manifested as positivity of both the M1- associated CD40 antigen and the M2-associated CD163 and CD206 antigens 6 months after bariatric surgery. Thus, as suggested by previously published data, subcutaneous adipose tissue macrophages seem to have a mixed phenotype. We further confirmed a higher number of non- classical monocytes, which play a role in the control of vascular integrity, in obese subjects as well as a classical monocyte-derived origin of CD163 positive monocytes. Our data also support the previous suggestion of the soluble form of CD163 antigen being a suitable marker of metabolic complications of obesity. The second part...
The influence of very-low calorie diet and pharmacologic interventions on adipose tissue metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Gregová, Monika ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Žourek, Michal (referee)
(EN) Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are among metabolic disease with increasing incidence and prevalence. Last decade has been devoted to intensive research focused on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying development of these diseases. Besides environmental factors, lifestyle and amount and composition of food, adipose tissue is a key player in the pathogenesis of obesity and its metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR) and T2DM. Primary aim of our work was to evaluate the role of recently discovered adipokine omentin and the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and in peripheral monocytes (PM) in patients with obesity and T2DM with respect to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. A total number of 118 subjects enrolled in the study were divided into three groups: patients with obesity and T2DM (T2DM group), obese non-diabetics (OB) and healthy lean subjects as a control group (KO). Study subjects underwent several types of interventions - 2 to 3 weeks of very-low calorie diet (VLCD, energy intake 600 kcal per day), regular physical activity program or bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, LSG). Results indicate that low serum omentin concentrations may contribute to development of obesity-associated...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 59 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
1 Haluzík, Michal
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.