National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Regulation of adiponectin and its isoforms production in human obesity
Kováčová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee) ; Rossmeisl, Martin (referee)
It is apparent that the imbalance in energy intake and expenditure coming hand-to-hand with the "westernisation" of our lifestyle leads to an elevated number of overweight and obese individuals that are commonly in a greater risk of developing chronic complications (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) with increased mortality. The development of obesity-related complications closely relate with dysfunction of adipose tissue leading to the peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic disruption of insulin sensitive organs (e.g. muscle, liver) subsequently inducing whole body insulin resistance. Since adipose tissue is the biggest endocrine organ in the human body producing many hormones influencing functions of adipose tissue itself or other organs, alteration of their spectrum has been revealed as one of the possible inductors or contributors disturbing body energy homeostasis. Adipose tissue serves as a major site for storage of surplus nutritions, however, long-term positive energy imbalance and high dose calorie intake lead not only to expansion of fat mass but mainly to the pathological changes of the tissue. In states of obesity, adipose tissue is under constant metabolic stress, resulting in the activation of the stress and inflammatory response. It leads to...
Novel metabolic regulators and proinflammatory factors in the etiopathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity: the influence of pharmacological and dietary interventions
Mráz, Miloš ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Šenolt, Ladislav (referee) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee)
NOVEL METABOLIC REGULATORS AND PROINFLAMMATORY FACTORS IN THE ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND OBESITY: THE INFLUENCE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND DIETARY INTERVENTIONS MUDr. Miloš Mráz Doctoral Thesis ABSTRACT (EN) Identifying novel factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of obesity, diabetes mellitus and their complications has become one of the primary scopes of metabolic research in the last years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of recently discovered metabolic and inflammatory regulators including fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 and chemotactic cytokines in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A total number of 182 patients were included into the study. They were divided into 3 groups - patients with obesity but without type 2 diabetes mellitus, individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy control normal-weight subjects. Selected interventions included 2 to 3 weeks of very-low-calorie diet (VLCD - energy content 2500 kJ/day), 3 months of administration of PPARα receptor agonist fenofibrate and acute hyperinsulinemia during hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. Our results indicate that the increase of circulating FGF-21 levels after VLCD and fenofibrate treatment could contribute to positive metabolic effects of these...
Influence of nutritional factors on the outcome of weight reduction program -predictors of weight loss
Hlavatá, Karolína ; Hainer, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Sucharda, Petr (referee)
How far will be a weight reduction successful depends on numerous factors. We focused on genetic, nutritional, hormonal and psychobehavioral factors which may significantly affect weight loss. Among nutritional factors a special attention was paid to the role of intakes of dietary calcium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In subsequent studies the predictors of weight reduction. In a pilot study (study 1) the effects of dietary calcium intake in 208 overweight or obese subjects who underwent comprehensive weight management programme on weight loss were evaluated. The results of the pilot study showed that the weight loss significantly correlated with the changes in calcium intake - with increasing calcium intake higher weight loss was achieved. In the second study we investigated the effect of various forms of calcium supplementation on anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and psychobehavioral parameters in a cohort of 67 overweight or obese perimenopausal women. We did not find any effect of calcium intake on weight loss. However, groups with calcium supplementation exhibited smaller decline in fat-free mass (FFM) compared with the placebo group. Calcium supplemented groups also demonstrated significant reductions in hunger scores. In the studies 3, 4 and 5 predictors of weight reduction were...
Role of Adipokines and Ghrelin in Normal and Nutritionally Modulated Adjuvant Ar thritis in Rats
Štofková, Andrea ; Jurčovičová, Jana (advisor) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee) ; Šenolt, Ladislav (referee)
Autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases, affecting as much as 5-7% of the general population, represent a considerable portion of human morbidity and many are known to be heritable. The clinical observations strongly suggest that even in genetically predisposed person, some trigger (an environmental exposure or change in the internal environment) is required for initiation of autoreactivity. However, for most autoimmune diseases, the trigger is unknown. Over the last decade, it has become apparent that obesity is an enhancer of chronic inflammation, and white adipose tissue products - adipokines and gastric hormone ghrelin have attracted attention for their immunomodulatory roles representing promising avenues for pharmacotherapy of autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this dissertation was to extend our understanding of the roles of adipokines and ghrelin in chronic inflammation using an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis, adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. The chronic inflammation was studied under the condition of (a) normofeeding, (b) overfeeding (using a model of early-life diet-induced obesity, comprising small litter size and high-fat diet consumption) and (c) 40% foodrestriction to reveal to what extent nutritional factors affect adipokine and ghrelin levels and...
Role of adipose tissue in the ethiopatogenesis of insulin resistance
Polák, Jan ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee) ; Rossmeisl, Martin (referee)
Adipose tissue is involved in etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and subsequent metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Mechanisms responsible for this association are investigated vigorously. One of the well accepted mechanisms linking excessive accummulation of adipose tissue with a development of insulin resistance are free fatty acids, which are released into circulation after hydrolysis of triglycerides stored in adipose tissue in a process of lipolysis. Impairments in a regulation of lipolysis are described in obese patients and lead to increased plasma level of free fatty acids and to impaired mobilisation of energy stores during exercise. In this PhD thesis, regulation of lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissuewas investigated using microdialysis technique. In the first paper we have observed that dysregulation in catecholamine-induced lipolysis and impaired insulin action in adipose tissue can be improved by dynamic-strength training in obese men. In the second study, we have demonstrated significant involvement of newly discovered lipolytic pathway mediated by atrial natriuretic peptide in lipolysis stimulation during exercise. Adipose tissue is producing several protein substances with regulatory and endocrine functions collectively named...
Role some genetic factors in bodyweight changes
Aldhoon, Bashar ; Hainer, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Kohoutová, Milada (referee) ; Vašků, Anna (referee)
The aim of the study was to determine the role of certain genetic factors on the ability to maintain weight loss, as well as to reduce the health risks associated with obesity in a group of about 300 obese patients followed for 2.5 years. The first part dealt with monitoring the impact of P73T polymorphism of the neuromedin gene on body weight reduction and its relation to certain metabolic and psychobehavioral factors. In the group of obese men, T allele non-carriers achieved significant reduction in waist circumference at the end of the follow-up. This waist circumference reduction was accompanied by a significant reduction in energy intake and by a significant decrease in the Beck depression score, while dietary restraint score increased. In the group of obese women, no significant differences between carriers and non-carriers of the T allele were observed. The significant reduction in total energy intake and macronutrient consumption was achieved in obese women regardless the genotype. In the second part, the effect of the Leu162Val of PPAR and Pro12Ala of PPAR gene polymorphisms on body weight reduction and on metabolic and psychobehavioral factors was studied in a group of 246 obese women. At baseline, non-carriers compared to carriers of the minor Val-allele of PPAR gene exhibitied a favorable effect...
Growth hormone - IGF - 1 axis, it's regulation and function. Plasma ghrelin levels in certain pathologic states
Jarkovská, Zuzana ; Marek, Josef (advisor) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
Ghreliu is a peptide hormone with a strong stimulatory effect on growth hormone (GH) secretion. Ghrelin was origiu;i!íy isolated from the rat stomach as an endogenous secretagogue for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Although the fírst coinpoimds of the group of growth hormone seeretagogues were synthesized already in 1997, the isolation of the GHS-R and ghrelin is a matter of tlie last decade. Our study was aimed at the determination of the physiological role of endogenous ghrelin in GH secretion in certain pathological conditions and its associations with tlie GH/IGF-1 axis compounds. Our study was the first one detecíing also active ghrelin coucentrations. We assumed, that ghrelin secretion is aflected by the GH secretory statě. In patíents with acroinegaly we expected low ghrelin coucentrations (hypothesis 1) aud in patients with GHD we presuined, that ghrelin concentrations will be elevated (hypothesis 2) in comparison with healthy subjects as an effect of the negative feedback regulation by GH. Our findings however did not support tliese hypotheses, active and total ghrelin concentrations did not differ between patients and healthy controls. These data do not support an important role tor ghrelin in GH secretion in these conditions as well as the existence of a negative feedback...

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