National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Characterizing DDI2 protein interaction by solution NMR
Staníček, Jakub ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee)
Human DDI2 protein is a dimeric aspartic protease that has been recently found to play an important role in DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation of the proteasome expression. Current insights into the mechanistic details of both functions are still quite limited. We have previously identified the human RAD23B protein to interact with the DDI2 protein. RAD23B also functions in DNA damage repair as part of the XPC complex that stimulates the nucleotide excision repair activity. Moreover, RAD23B participates as an adaptor protein in the process of protein degradation. Therefore, the interaction of DDI2 and RAD23B might have important implications for both known functions of DDI2. This work describes the DDI2 and RAD23B interaction on the structural level. Recombinant protein variants of both DDI2 and RAD23B proteins were prepared and the interaction was mapped by the affinity pull-down assay. Protein NMR titrations were further used to explore the interaction. Key words: ubiquitin-proteasome system, DNA damage repair, proteasome expression regulation, aspartyl protease, DDI2, NMR
Exploring novel strategies targeting HBV
Šmilauerová, Kristýna ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
An effective and safe vaccine against Hepatitis B virus already exists, yet morbidity and mortality of this illness are still high. The key to developing a reliable treatment is a deep knowledge of the virus' life cycle and functions of all its components. In the presented work we explored an interactome of the Core protein of the Hepatitis B virus. Using proximity-dependent biotin identification technique (BioID) coupled to mass spectrometry we have identified a list of potential candidates that are either significantly enriched (in total 105 proteins) or less abundant in the presence of the HBV Core protein in the cell (40 proteins). The list also includes known HBV Core interacting proteins SRPK1 and SRPK2, and p53 protein whose expression is known to be repressed due to the HBV Core interaction with the E2F1 transcription factor. Many of the newly identified possible HBV Core interacting proteins are involved in biological processes already known or are suspected to be influenced by the HBV such as translational and transporting processes or gene expression and macromolecule production. Overall, this work comprehensively characterizes the interaction landscape of the HBV Core protein in the live cells and might thus serve as a reliable start for in depth HBV-host interaction analysis. Key...
Role of yeast WSS1 protease in DNA repair.
Adámek, Michael ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Čáp, Michal (referee)
Sustaining the integrity of DNA throughout the lifetime is critical for every living organism. Therefore organisms evolved numerous ways to detect and repair different types of DNA damage caused by various endogenous and exogenous factors resulting in replication stress. Defects in these repair mechanisms can lead to severe human diseases such as neurological disorders, familial cancers or developmental syndromes. In presented master thesis, we investigated the function of a yeast protein named Wss1, a metalloprotease that participates in a recently discovered DNA repair pathway that proteolytically removes DNA-protein crosslinks. Wss1 shows strong negative interaction with another DNA repair protease, Ddi1, in which case was discovered, that double-deleted yeast strain lacking WSS1 and DDI1 is hypersensitive to hydroxyurea. Hydroxurea is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor that, in the end, arrests cells in the S-phase of cell-cycle. Based on previous studies, we performed rescue experiments with various deletions and single-site mutants of Wss1p to assess the involvement of particular yeast Wss1p domains in the replication stress response to hudroxyurea.
Deciphering the biological role of Ddi1-like protein family
Sivá, Monika ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Bařinka, Cyril (referee) ; Stopka, Pavel (referee)
Ddi1-like protein family has been recently raised into the spotlight by the scientific community due to its important roles in cellular homeostasis maintenance. It represents a specific group among shuttling proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. When compared to other shuttles, Ddi1-like protein family members harbor a unique retroviral-protease like domain besides the conventional ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain and domains interacting with ubiquitin. In addition, a helical domain of Ddi (HDD) has been recently found in most of the orthologs. In this thesis, I focus on characterization of several members of Ddi1-like protein family, both on molecular level using NMR and in model mouse strains via a variety of biological methods. Solution structure of the UBL domain of Ddi1p of S. cerevisiae was solved and its characteristics were compared to those of the UBL domain of its human ortholog. Furthermore, we show that human DDI2 specifically binds to ubiquitin with its terminal domains, both the UBL and the UIM; however, with very low affinity in contrast to binding properties of its yeast counterpart. Our study also show that hDDI2 does not form a head-to-tail homodimer. Based on our structural studies, we hypothesize that human DDI2 might have evolved a different function compared to its yeast...
Preparation of fusion ligands and evaluation of their binding to NK cell receptors
Nepokojová, Tereza ; Vaněk, Ondřej (advisor) ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (referee)
Natural killer cells (NK cells) are an important part of innate immunity. On their surface they express a complex group of receptors that use different signalling motifs to activate or inhibit NK cell cytotoxic activity. NK cells are capable to kill aberrant cells (namely, viral, infected, and tumour cells) by using special cytotoxic mechanisms to trigger apoptosis. The activating receptors recognize tumour or stress-induced ligands, e.g., NKG2D receptor recognizes the MICA ligand and NKp30 recognizes the B7-H6 ligand. Therefore for human immune system it is only natural that cancer cells are destroyed by NK cells. The current therapeutic goals in the treatment of cancer are primarily focused on strengthening the body's own natural ability to fight with cancer and one possible way is stimulation of NK cells to win this deadly fight. In addition to NK cells, antibodies are also widely used for the treatment of cancer, as well as other immune-related disorders. Most of them are monoclonal antibodies, but antibody fragments are getting attention and are being tested more and more in recent years. This work describes the preparation of three bifunctional fusion proteins: B7-H6-L-aHER2, MICA-L-aHER2, and aHER2-L-MICA, which contain immunoligands for the activating receptors of NK cell and VHH fragment...
Preparation of nanoparticles for hepatitis B viral therapy
Kružíková, Zuzana ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Žáčková Suchanová, Jiřina (referee)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents one of the hot topics of current basic and pharmaceutical research. Although an effective vaccine against HBV exists since 1982, the world prevalence of chronic infection is still alarming. The infection can lead to significant liver damage, often resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic HBV infection cannot be cured due to the fact that the viral genome persists in the infected hepatocyte hidden from the host immune response as well as from the antiviral treatment. One of the novel approaches aiming for HBV cure suggests that this cccDNA pool could be destroyed using gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 system. In order to shift this gene editing system to possible medicinal application, CRISPR/Cas9 has to be specifically delivered into the target cell in order to minimize its putative off-target activity. This thesis focuses at first on the design and efficacy testing of new sgRNAs targeting HBV cccDNA and secondly, it describes modular lipid nanoparticles developed specially for delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the form of RNA. Keywords: hepatitis B virus, CRISPR/Cas9, gene editing, lipid nanoparticles, mRNA delivery, targeted delivery
Bacteriophage therapy with focus on urinary catheters biofilms
Ludvík, Vojtěch ; Drda Morávková, Alena (advisor) ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (referee)
The term of the bacteriophage therapy denotes the use of viruses for killing bacteria. My thesis refers about the use of the bacteriophage therapy in the process of treating nosocomial infections caused by the urinary tract catheterization. I focus on the bacteria that are found in the catheters' biofilms and on the selection of bacteriophages that will be capable of the enzymatically degradation of the biofilms as well as the lysis of the present bacteria. After the body fluids contact the surface of the catheter, an environment for the evolution of the biofilm begins to evolve, which leads to its fast expansion and to the development of an infection. In the case of improper hygienically measures and unreasonable duration of the catheterization, the incidence of the infections reaches 100%. Because of the presence of the biofilm, the bacteria demonstrate high resistance to antibiotics, which is why the infections often aren't suppressed and may have fatal consequences. If applied, the bacteriophage cocktail and genetically modified bacteriophages can successfully treat the infection and even prevent from its development. Keywords: Bacteriophage therapy, urinary tract infection, catheterization, biofilm, EPS
Searching for a physiological partner of Ddi2 (DNA damage-inducible protein homolog 2) protein
Kurfürst, Jaroslav ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Vaněk, Ondřej (referee)
One of the most important cellular processes, essential not only for protein degradation, is the so called ubiquitin-proteasome system. A key player in this system is ubiquitin, a small protein with unique ability to form various chains. Cellular proteins marked for degradation via ubiquitin, are recruited to the proteasome either by a direct interaction with one of the intrinsic proteasomal receptors, or by adaptor proteins. These proteins typically possess ubiquitin-like domain and ubiquitin associated domain that predispose them for delivering ubiquinated proteins to the proteasome. Adaptor protein called Ddi2 differs from other members of this family by possessing additional domain called the retroviral protease like domain. This domain is structurally similar to HIV protease and its proteolytic function has been discovered only recently. Due to the presence of this proteolytic domain one could expect that Ddi2 might be a deubiquitinase. Here we therefore tested the possible cleavage of diubiquitin chains by recombinantly prepared Ddi2 protein. We can conclude that Ddi2 did not show any deubiquitinating activity in given conditions.
Ddi1-like proteins: a novel family of retroviral-like aspartyl proteases
Šmilauerová, Kristýna ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Šmahel, Michal (referee)
Ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the key pathways which maintain cell homeostasis. Its purpose is to degrade damaged, misfolded or unnecessary proteins. It is also involved in multiple other processes such as DNA damage repair, cell cycle control or signaling. The entire system consists of multiple components, which are mutually strictly regulated. Important part of this system is group of so called proteasome adaptor proteins. Their role is to recognize and bind targeted substrates and transport them to the proteasome for degradation. Ddi1-like (abbrev. from DNA damage-inducible protein 1) protein family, a group of proteins with retroviral aspartyl protease-like domain, belongs to proteasome adaptor proteins. Global biological role of this protein family is only partially understood the most studied member is Ddi1 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it is thus a subject of active research. This thesis summarizes published information about this protein family, describes its general characteristics and known functions, situates them in the context of cell processes and thereby might suggest the course of further study.
Structure determination of helical domain of DNA damage-inducible protein 2
Staníček, Jakub ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee)
Human Ddi2 and his homologues are scarcely explored family of ubiquitin- like/ubiquitin-associated domain proteins (UBL/UBA proteins), containing domain which is structurally related to dimeric aspartyl proteases from retroviruses. The most studied of this family is Ddi1 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which functions within the ubiquitin- proteasome system. This key cellular system exploits tightly regulated enzymatic apparatus for highly selective posttranslational modifications of proteins with molecules of ubiquitin, which serves as intracellular signal determining the proteins fate, importantly its degradation in many cases. Ddi1 plays a role of proteasome adaptor within this context, helping the recognition of ubiquitylated proteins by the proteasome. Even though the function as a proteasome receptor is possible for human Ddi2 protein as well, its cellular role might have been altered during the evolution. One of the important steps in decoding its purpose in cell is exploration of function of its individual domains. This work focuses on structural study of neighbouring region of this protease domain, where the helix-rich region called HDD domain is located. This region of Ddi2 was cloned, expressed and subjected to the NMR measurements. Structural information based on the NMR data was...

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