National Repository of Grey Literature 43 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Indefinite Article and Definiteness of Nouns in Corpus-based ELT
Bulantová, Barbora ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šaldová, Pavlína (referee)
This BA thesis aims to compare two distinct approaches towards grammar explanation in ELT: deductive and inductive. The deductive method is commonly used in traditional curricula. The learners are presented with the metalinguistic information on the target pattern, which is followed by practice activities. The second method uses inductive reasoning - the learners are provided with texts containing the target linguistic pattern, from which they form hypotheses about the rules of its use. The thesis presents a quasi-experimental study with 25 upper- intermediate Czech secondary-school students, which was conducted to determine which of the approaches is more beneficial for teaching English grammar. Another purpose of the study was to compare the corpus data as an authentic study material in contrast with concocted model sentences in a language textbook. The indefinite article was chosen as the target linguistic feature. The theoretical part is divided into several sections. Firstly, it provides a linguistic account on the use of the indefinite article, with A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language and Mluvnice současné angličtiny na pozadí češtiny as the primary sources. The second section describes the indefinite article as a target linguistic feature within the frames of ELT and SLA. It...
The Efficiency of Graded Readers for Teaching Vocabulary: A Combination of Two Approaches
Sedláček, Martin ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Cilibrasi, Luca (referee)
The diploma thesis deals with the relationship between graded readers and teaching vocabulary. We examine whether extensive reading leads to vocabulary acquisition on the basis of context provided by graded readers. In addition, we focus on the frequency of occurrence of individual lexical items and we interpret it as an important variable in teaching lexis. These two factors are compared using test data from two groups of experiment participants. The first group (the reading group) was asked to read the text at their own pace, while the second group was asked to read the text while listening to it being narrated by an English native speaker. Based on hitherto research, the listening group is expected to outperform the reading group. After introducing the topic in chapter 1, we attempt to define extensive reading in chapter 2. Graded readers are based on providing sufficient amount of context for understanding unknown vocabulary. In this chapter we contrast practical application of extensive reading with theoretical foundation in secondary literature. Chapter 3 delineates the methodology used in the present thesis. It is based on replicating a study by Waring and Takaki (2003), and also on research into audio- assisted reading. This methodology is used to measure the efficiency of reading and...
Verbal communication strategies in English as a foreign language
Červenková, Tereza ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šaldová, Pavlína (referee)
It is desirable that language learners develop their strategic competence, which allows them to communicate the intended meaning when facing breakdowns in communication. One of the manifestations of strategic competence is the use of communication strategies. The present thesis aims to observe the use of communication strategies by Czech learners of English. It focuses on the types of communication strategies used in learner language and on the relationship between their use and proficiency, fluency and task types. The data were extracted from 14 transcripts of interviews with students of English philology recorded for the purposes of the multinational learner corpus of advanced spoken English LINDSEI (2010). The proficiency of the recorded subjects ranged from B2- to C2. 319 instances of communication strategies extracted from the transcripts were categorized on the basis of an adapted taxonomy, forming two main categories: compensatory strategies (55 instances), which compensate the lack of linguistic resources, and indirect strategies (264 instances), which enhance the effectiveness of communication and keep the channel of communication open. Compensatory strategies were further divided into analytic (36), holistic (3), linguistic (6) and cooperative strategies (10). Analytic strategies were the...
Effect of time of exposure to L2 on the comprehension of relative clauses in primary school children
Brabcová, Alžběta ; Cilibrasi, Luca (advisor) ; Gráf, Tomáš (referee)
This study investigates the impact of second language age of onset on the development of syntactic competence in bilinguals. Forty-five bilingual children were tested using a picture- matching task with relative clauses. In this paradigm, children are aurally presented with relative clauses of various kinds and are asked to match what they hear with the appropriate picture (out of four choices) on the screen. More specifically, our experiment compared the comprehension of subject- vs. object-extracted center-embedded relative clauses and contained sentences with noun phrases (NPs) that did or did not match in number (both NPs singular or plural = match, one NP singular, one NP plural = mismatch). We compared the performance of a group of Simultaneous bilinguals (two languages since birth), Early sequential bilinguals (first exposure to L2 - English between the ages of 1 to 4) and Late sequential bilinguals (first exposure to L2 -English after the age of 4 but latest at the age of 6 - primary school). The mean age of the participants at the time of testing was approx. 10 years of age. The results show that there is a varied pattern in the comprehension strategies used among the three bilingual groups. The group of Simultaneous bilinguals showed more reliance on the syntactic information contained in...
Errors in expressing the past in advanced EFL learners with Spanish as L1
Balgová, Šárka ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Popelíková, Jiřina (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to carry out a spoken corpus-based analysis of errors advanced EFL learners with Spanish as L1 make (when) referring to the past. The thesis is divided into two main parts: the theoretical part, and the practical part. The theoretical part offers a brief linguistic description of the system, specifically, of the grammatical possibilities of referring to the past. It also provides a theoretical account of learner language, interlanguage, typical features of spoken language, the definitions of errors, as well as computer-aided error analysis. The practical part presents an analysis of a sample of data drawn from the Spanish subcorpus of LINDSEI. In addition, the practical part continues in providing with the evidence of errors in expressing the past. The sample of native speakers of Spanish is error tagged, and the mistakes found in parts referring to the past are identified. The Louvain tagging system is used for the error-tagging. The thesis analyses the selected errors and compares the results with previous research conducted on native speakers of Czech. Key words: spoken language, learner language, interlanguage, learner corpora, error analysis, error tagging
The representation of cultures in English textbooks
Rybková, Veronika ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Klégr, Aleš (referee)
The thesis examines the representation of cultures in ELT textbooks in order to reveal whether the textbooks may serve as tools of developing intercultural communicative competence (ICC). The specific aim of the thesis is to assess the extent to which different cultures appear in the textbooks' cultural content. It also aims at examining the manner in which specific cultures are represented. Three textbooks have been selected for the study and the visuals and reading components of units 1-10 of each have been analysed. The method of extracting and counting the cultural references is used to carry out a cultural breadth analysis. In the analysis of the manner of cultural representation, specific cultures are examined in the textbooks which quantitatively favour them. The results show that the two textbooks that have been evaluated as possible ICC- developing tools exhibit diversity both in the extent of different cultures they include and also in the varying manner in which the cultures are represented and which often shows cultures in juxtaposition. Methodological choices made in writing the thesis may inspire further research of cultural content of ICC-supportive textbooks. The thesis also promotes the importance of a critical approach to textbooks as materials of considerable educational value.
Explicit information on pronunciation in EFL coursebooks used at Czech upper-secondary schools
Brabcová, Kateřina ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Skarnitzl, Radek (referee)
Although recognised as an important aspect of language proficiency, pronunciation often does not receive much attention in the EFL classroom. Teachers themselves admit not being properly qualified to teach this language area and consequently rely solely on the use of activities provided in the coursebook. The present thesis compares seven publications most frequently used at Czech upper-secondary schools and shows how they differ in the way they deal with pronunciation tasks and their presentation. The results indicate not only how many pronunciation activities are provided and what pronunciation phenomena are covered, but attention is also paid to what task types - explicit or implicit - are preferred as, ideally, both should be used in combination. Although it seems that four of the publications are better suited for pronunciation teaching, the conclusion is that none of them can be considered perfect and that teachers should always think of their own teaching context and adapt the material when necessary.
Errors in the usage of article in advanced EFL learners with Spanish as L1
Hubáčková, Iva ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Čermák, Jan (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to find out in which contexts advanced EFL learners with Spanish as L1 tend to use articles incorrectly, and to what extent these errors can be ascribed to L1 transfer. For this purpose, a selection of 30 speakers from the Spanish part of the spoken learner corpus LINDSEI was examined. The errors were tagged using a modified version of the Louvain error- tagging manual. They were then classified according to the article forms and the types of reference. Lastly, the excerpts were compared with their Spanish counterparts. The research revealed that the most-error prone area is non-referring uses of the indefinite article. However, the majority of these errors were caused by factors, other than L1-transfer. In fact, the fact that there were few errors in expressing definiteness suggests that the positive role of transfer prevails. Also, the number of "transfer errors" in individual speakers' performances was not always proportional to the total number of errors. And last but not least, in many cases, the role of transfer is questionable as in Spanish, there are cases where more than one form is considered correct. The findings of this thesis should thus serve as starting point for further research, which would provide answer to questions this study could not answer. Key...

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