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An Image of War in Georges Bataille's Conceptions
Zítko, Jakub ; Fulka, Josef (advisor) ; Váša, Ondřej (referee)
The war represents one of the most conspicuous manifestations of the overabundance of energy that Georges Bataille has been theorizing as part of his theory of general economics. On the background of this facts, work seeks to define war as an inherently non-utilitarian expenditure of energy with which the human must necessarily contend. Next, the work attempts to question the common denominators of the excessive moments that war undoubtedly belongs to, and to point out their importance in philosophy of Bataille. The sovereignty that accompanies such moments will be further themed, bearing in mind the specificity that the author devotes to it, which breaks out of dialectical necessity. Keywords: Georges Bataille, sovereignty, accursed share, heterogeneity, self-consciousness, critique of utilitarity, war
Semiotic "ethnography" of Deleuze and Guattari and non-standard animism
Šír, David ; Charvát, Martin (advisor) ; Fulka, Josef (referee)
The starting point of this work is the concept of indigenous animism in Félix Guattari's late work at the end of his life, understood as a form of subjectivity operating through different regimes of signs than the "modern" one. These animist semiotics are "polysemic" and "trans-individual," while instead of building a sharp division between the spheres of "nature" and "culture", they inhabit reality by "collective entities half-thing half-soul, half- man half-animal, machine and flow, matter and sign." The aim of most of the following text is then primarily to trace these semiotics across the joint work of Deleuze and Guattari. After introducing the context of Deleuze's philosophy and its specific "image of thought," and explaining its basic concepts, we will focus on the description and comparison of the semiotic "ethnographies" of Anti-Oedipus and A Thousand Plateaus. The first volume traces the "universal history" of the ways of hominization (becoming human) of man from the state of nature, through various forms of inscription, which constitute society and culture. These modes are several and do not work only through language. In the limit experience of schizophrenia, the authors of Anti-Oedipa find a moment preceding all these historically contingent forms of hominization. In contrast, the...
The case of Rousseau: Formation of an existence
Kojanová, Anna ; Fulka, Josef (advisor) ; Chavalka, Jakub (referee)
This diploma thesis is based on the final works of Michel Foucault (Courage of truth, Fearless peech) and it focuses on how the truth and truth-telling as an activity effects self- formation of the individual, namely self-formation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, which is recorded in his autobiografical works (Confession of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Dialoges: Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques, Reveries of a Solitery Walker). In my thesis, I have tried to decide as which true-telling person he could be considered (prophet, sage, teacher, parrhesiastes or cynic). In order to achieve that, I drew from his other philosophical works and secondary literature (Discurses, Essay on the Origin of languages, Emile or On Education, The Social Contract, Letter to M. D'Alembert on Spectacles, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Transparency and Obstruction) and I was looking for evidence of his true nature and thoughts, which I put into context of his work Confessions afterwards. Keywords: Truth, courage of truth, parrhesia, parrhesiastes, cynic, self-love, false meaning about oneself, heart, passion, imagination, human nature, social inequalities.
Ethics of Sexual Behaviour. Mimesis of the Sexual Ethics in the European Belles-lettres Literature
Koumar, Jan ; Pinc, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Vrhel, František (referee) ; Fulka, Josef (referee)
This works deals with ethics of sexuality in the chosen canonical works of the Euro- American Belles-Lettres literature. It tries to concentrate on the changes of the preferred bases which ethics of sexuality is based on, furthermore it analyses the expressed ethical stances and finally it emphasises some sexual-ethical themes, which appeared in the analysed books. The emphasis is put on the different nature of two ethical layers: shared customs and individual morality, which can radically differ from the prevailing customs, protest against them or expand them further. Based on 42 canonical works, this work names and described 7 possible approaches to the ethics of sexuality and 7 ethical topics which were recurrently appearing in the analysed books.
Intertextuality in works of Karel Čapek and Dan Wells
Horáková, Kateřina ; Češka, Jakub (advisor) ; Fulka, Josef (referee)
The thesis deals with intertextuality in Karel Čapek's drama R.U.R. and Dan Wells' trilogy Partials Sequence. The aim of the thesis is the interpretation and subsequent comparison of the above-mentioned works and finding mutual resemblances mostly in the main motives, but also in genre characteristics, environment, story sequence and other topics reflected in both works. Since the topic of the thesis already assumes the existence of intertextual relationship between the two works, therefore the aim of the work is not proving its existence but we are trying to determine how far these similarities goes and whether they are just random intertextual similarities or whether Dan Wells, although he does not admit it publicly, necessarily had to be inspired directly by Čapek's drama. Keywords: intertextuality, Gerard Genette, Roland Barthes, Karel Čapek, R.U.R., Dan Wells, Partials Sequence, robot.
Political Thought of Judith Butler
Sůsa, Jan ; Hauser, Michael (advisor) ; Fulka, Josef (referee) ; Kobová, Lubica (referee)
My thesis is focused on critical analysis of political thought of American philosopher Judith Butler. Butler is concerned with the relationship between individual identity and collective subjectivity, and her works - which caused many critical reactions - represent one of the most interesting discussion in the field of feminist political philosophy. Butler is mainly concerned with the question, how various political strategies (eg. feminism) could be based on common interests of various agents, and not on their supposedly stable identity (eg. sex and gender). Her criticism of unproblematized "natural" identities is important not only to the constitution of any individual identity, but also for the notion of the political dimension of a collective subject. The introductory chapters of my thesis are concerned with early thought of Butler, mainly with her critical relationship to the "second wave" feminism, and with her notion of the performative constitution of gender identity. Next chapters explore the shift in her thinking from analysis of gender and sex towards more general themes of political thought: nation, race, class, universalism, state censorship, possibility of resistance or emergence of a collective subject without stable unifying principle. I also try to analyze selected critical...
Bataille's L'expérience intérieure as an Event of Extremity of Human Existence
Šimek, Adam ; Fulka, Josef (advisor) ; Bierhanzl, Jan (referee)
The presented study takes up the problem of Bataille's impossible testimony of the impossible. This endeavor represents a wider contextual framework for a project of this thesis which proposes a way of laying down the foundation for a philosophical reading of Bataille's L'expérience intérieure by developing some key moments of his anthropology. Bataille's thought is introduced as the dynamics of a gesture of testimony (or a witnessing) which testifies to the difference du sens as it is being incorporated in the movement of writing (écriture) into the texts of La Somme Athéologique. Since these texts oftentimes resist a direct philosophical treatment, this essay discusses the possibilities of a philosophical approach to Bataille. Such discussion results in setting up the necessary limitations of an adequate philosophical attitude towards Bataille's thought while leaving its problematic quality in play. Then the narrower framework of this essay is put into work in an attempt to achieve an understanding of key parts of The Inner Experience through a philosophical analysis of Bataille's concept of humanity.

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