National Repository of Grey Literature 10 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Sperm centrioles and their role in reproduction
Vlčková, Monika ; Frolíková, Michaela (advisor) ; Liška, František (referee)
Centrioles are evolutionarily conserved protein structures composed of microtubules. In somatic cells, centrioles serve as the basal body of cilia and flagella and allow the assembly of pericentriolar material, thereby creating the centrosome. Without centrosome, animal cells are not capable of nuclear division. Centrioles do not arise de novo and their formation always requires the presence of a preexisting centriole. Since there are no centrioles in the egg at the time of fertilization, unlike spermatozoa, sperm is the carrier of centrioles and therefore all of the centrioles of the emerging organism are of paternal origin. There are two centrioles in the sperm - a cylindrical shape proximal and a distal one, which is perpendicular to the proximal. The sperm centrioles are the basis for the formation of the sperm flagellum and after fertilization form the mitotic spindle of the zygote, necessary for equal DNA and cell distribution. It follows from the above that the presence of centrioles in sperm is essential in mammals and defects in their structure may lead to male sterility or embryo development disorders. However, sperm centrioles differ from somatic centrioles in their structure and behavior and understanding these differences is one of the important tasks of reproductive biology.
Sperm cell penetration and membrane fusion with oocyte during fertilization in mammals
Klimková, Veronika ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Frolíková, Michaela (referee)
Fertilization is a process involving multiple steps, which are in continuity and complement each other. Spermatozoa become competent to fertilize after capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction. Oocytes are surrounded by a layer of cumulus cells and give a signals for spermatozoa to activation and orientation. This study focuses on the latest knowledges about a roles of cumulus cells, production of chemoattractants and the possibility that cumulus cells induce the acrosome reaction after binding a novel sperm protein NYD-SP8 to the cumulus. It seems that progesterone induce the acrosome reaction and also is the best chemoattractant secreted by cumulus cells. Next I am focus on gamete fusion including the role of surface proteins such as Juno and IZUMO1. Key words: membrane fusion, cumulus cells, acrosome reaction, chemotaxis sperm, oocyte, fertilization
Sperm acrosomal reactien in selected species of mammals
Frolíková, Michaela
Mammalian sperm must undergo the process of capacitation - series of physiological and biochemical modifications prior fertilization. In last stage of capacitation sperm undergoes acrosome reaction (AR). During AR the cell membrane of the sperm fuses with the outer acrosomal membrane and the contents of acrosomal vesicle are released into extracellular space. Sperm which did not undergo AR or sperm missing acrosome at all are unable to fertilize. AR results into dramatical changes in the sperm head. Most of the proteins present in plasmatic and outer acrosomal membrane are reorganized or lost. There are also significant changes in cytoskeletal and intraacrosomal proteins are released to extracellular space uncovering new surface domains. Some sperms undergo AR even without presence of inductor of AR during capacitation in vitro. This event is called spontaneous (accelerated) AR. The latest research indicates that spontaneous AR is natural part of the process of fertilization. Field mice (Apodemus) show high level of promiscuity leading to significant risk of sperm competition. Unique reproduction strategy where the sperms form so-called sperm trains was evolved in field mice. Spontaneous AR is probably enabling the dissociation of sperms from the sperm train. The spontaneous AR rate is dependent on...
Species-specific structural differences of mammalian sperm and function of their key proteins during fertilization.
Dobrodinská, Anna ; Frolíková, Michaela (advisor) ; Kuntová, Barbora (referee)
The fertilization is a process during which a male and a female gamete merge so that a new organism may come into being. The sperm-egg fusion is preceded by several essential processes, such as the capacitation, acrosome reaction, the sperm binding to the zona pellucida and oolemma, and membrane fusion of the gametes. Numerous proteins, which are located in both sperm and eggs, are major actors in controlling the listed, essential processes. During the process of fertilization these proteins fulfil one or more functions. In mammalian sperm, significant species-specific differences may be found both in their morphology and at the protein level. A complex understanding of species-specific distinctions in sperm structure and functions of key sperm proteins would contribute to a better insight into the process of fertilization, thereby enabling us to better diagnose and subsequently treat the causes of infertility in humans. This bachelor's thesis summarizes the current knowledge of sperm structure and its key proteins that has been acquired through the studies of the following model mammal species: bull, boar, mouse, and human. Further, this thesis brings an interspecific comparison between the studied species. Keywords: sperm, fertilization, acrosome reaction, capacitation, sperm proteins, bull,...
Sperm acrosomal reactien in selected species of mammals
Frolíková, Michaela ; Stopka, Pavel (advisor) ; Jonáková, Věra (referee) ; Petr, Jaroslav (referee)
Mammalian sperm must undergo the process of capacitation - series of physiological and biochemical modifications prior fertilization. In last stage of capacitation sperm undergoes acrosome reaction (AR). During AR the cell membrane of the sperm fuses with the outer acrosomal membrane and the contents of acrosomal vesicle are released into extracellular space. Sperm which did not undergo AR or sperm missing acrosome at all are unable to fertilize. AR results into dramatical changes in the sperm head. Most of the proteins present in plasmatic and outer acrosomal membrane are reorganized or lost. There are also significant changes in cytoskeletal and intraacrosomal proteins are released to extracellular space uncovering new surface domains. Some sperms undergo AR even without presence of inductor of AR during capacitation in vitro. This event is called spontaneous (accelerated) AR. The latest research indicates that spontaneous AR is natural part of the process of fertilization. Field mice (Apodemus) show high level of promiscuity leading to significant risk of sperm competition. Unique reproduction strategy where the sperms form so-called sperm trains was evolved in field mice. Spontaneous AR is probably enabling the dissociation of sperms from the sperm train. The spontaneous AR rate is dependent on...
Distribution of CD46 and β1 integrin molecules with respect to different membrane structures of the sperm head
Šebková, Nataša ; Frolíková, Michaela ; Děd, Lukáš ; Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina
CD46 protein plays an important role during fertilization and its role is associated with acrosome stability. CD46 is probably involved in signalling pathways triggering the acrosome reaction (AR). It also associates through membrane integrins with specific MAP kinases involved in the AR. Our aim was to monitor the dynamics of relocation of CD46 and β1 integrin during sperm maturation and its preparation for the fertilization. The dependence of this localization changes on the dynamic of actin cytoskeleton was studied. Our results show the changes in the localization of these proteins associated with the AR and their co-localization was observed using proximity ligation assay. After the AR CD46 and β1 integrin spreads across the sperm head, entering the post-acrosomal compartment, and permeates the borders of different domains. It was shown previously that actin dynamics is necessary for acrosome reaction-associated translocation of Izumo1 protein that is required for sperm-egg fusion. Therefore Latrunculin A was used during sperm incubation. The co-incubation of capacitated sperm with Latrunculin A leads to a decrease of the percentages of sperm, which express relocation pattern after induced AR. 3D models and visualizations of potential membrane processes responsible for the relocation of proteins from the acrosomal area to the other compartments of the sperm head were prepared. Our results deliver new information that proteins CD46 and β1 integrin undergo dynamic relocation towards the sites of sperm-egg fusion during the AR in vitro. The inhibitor of actin dynamics abrogates significantly the AR-associated changes in proteins localization. We speculate that this relocation is of importance for the successful sperm-egg interaction, adhesion and subsequent gamete fusion.
CD46 and β1integrin interaction in mouse sperm head
Šebková, Nataša ; Frolíková, Michaela ; Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina
CD46 protein plays an important role during fertilization and its role is associated with acrosome stability. CD46 is probably involved in signalling pathways triggering the acrosome reaction. Integrins interact with many cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, therefore changes in the actin cytoskeleton before and after AR may lead to changes in the association and localization of CD46 and β1integrin. Our aim was to monitor mutual CD46 and β1integrin interaction detected by the proximity ligation assay. It generates a localized signal in a form of spots revealing the exact position of the recognition event. Proteins interaction was study in freshly released sperm and sperm during the acrosome reaction, during which there is a gradual relocation of these proteins towards the equatorial segment and the whole sperm head. Proteins α and β tubulin were used as a positive control, α tubulin and β1 integrin as a negative control. In situ PLA showed a distinct spotted signal indicating the mutual interaction of CD46 and β1integrin. A positive response was demonstrated not only in freshly released sperm but also in sperm during the acrosome reaction. Freshly released sperm were distinctively labelled in the acrosome region and the neck, similarly to the positive control. Sperm during the acrosome reaction showed the signal across the whole sperm head region. No signal or sporadic nonspecific staining was detected in the case of the negative control. In summary, our results deliver new information that proteins CD46 and β1 integrin interact with each other. These results suppose the theory that β1 integrin can mediate a connection between CD46 and sperm cytoskeleton thereby molecules of signalling pathways leading to activation of the acrosome reaction.
Dynamics of mouse sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction
Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina ; Frolíková, Michaela ; Děd, Lukáš ; Šebková, Nataša
Capacitation followed by the acrosome reaction (AR), is a very complex event of molecular changes, including acrosome matrix rearrangement and actin polymerization, which mammalian sperm must undergo in the female reproductive tract in order to obtain the ability to penetrate and fertilize the egg. CD46 and β1-integrin belong to specific proteins, which are predicted to interact during molecular reorganization of capacitating sperm. The IZUMO1 as the primary fusion protein of the mammalian sperm is also involved in this dynamic network. We investigated the relationship between the Izumo, CD46 and β1 integrin relocation in the sperm head during the capacitation and AR in vitro. We have already successfully monitored by immunofluorescent labelling the dynamics of proteins CD46 and β1-integrin. The changes in the localization of these proteins associated with the AR and their mutual co-localization was observed. The original β1-integrin location in the freshly released epididymal sperm is in the acrosome and it relocates during the AR further through the sperm head compartments into the equatorial segment and over the whole sperm head. Its density over the equatorial segment is decreasing with the extended time of the AR. Also its presence in the perforatorium of the mouse sperm head is very prominent. The pattern for protein CD46 is extremely similar if not identical in both aspects such as compartment localization and time progress during capacitation and AR in vitro. The molecular interaction of CD46 and β1-integrin was investigated using the Proximity Ligation Assay and Super resolution microscopy STED. The data were statistically analysed. The newly obtained results from CD46 and β1-integrin relocation are in correlation with IZUMO1 dynamics and giving a substantial knowledge on the studied protein network rearrangement during capacitation and AR in mouse spermatozoa.

See also: similar author names
1 FROLÍKOVÁ, Miloslava
2 FROLÍKOVÁ, Monika
1 Frolíková, Marie
2 Frolíková, Markéta
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