Národní úložiště šedé literatury Nalezeno 20 záznamů.  1 - 10další  přejít na záznam: Hledání trvalo 0.00 vteřin. 
Towards a combining of remote sensing and in situ evapotranspiration measurements
Fischer, Milan ; Jurečka, František ; Anderson, M. ; Hain, C. ; Pozníková, Gabriela ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Orság, Matěj ; Lukas, V. ; Žalud, Z. ; Trnka, Miroslav
This study provides preliminary results from combining in situ Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) and\nevapotranspiration (ET) measurements techniques with physically based remote sensing ET estimates determined\nby the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. Evapotranspiration measurements\nand ALEXI estimates were analysed in an agricultural area close to Polkovice, Czech Republic during 2015,\nwhen a drought spell and intensive heatwaves appeared in the country. The BREB system was monitoring a\nwinter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) field (~26 ha) while the ALEXI pixel (~5 km resolution) covered a wide\nrange of crops, including mainly winter wheat, spring barley, and winter rape. The study results showed that,\nalthough the applied methods work at different spatial scales (field vs. landscape), their combination can provide\nfurther insights into ET at both scales. For instance, such approach can be used to identify whether a specific\necosystem investigated in situ contributes to cooling or warming of the landscape.
Application of multispectral remote sensing indices for sensing indices for estimating crop yields at field level
Jurečka, František ; Lukas, Vojtěch ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Semerádová, Daniela ; Fischer, Milan ; Žalud, Zdeněk ; Trnka, Miroslav
Remote sensing can be used for yield estimation prior to harvest and can replace or complement classical\nways of estimating crop yields. This study was undertaken in Polkovice, located in the Czech Republic’s\nHaná region. For 2015 and 2016, two data sets of satellite imagery were used: the Moderate Resolution\nImaging Spectroradiometer and the Landsat 8. Vegetation indices from satellites were compared with crop\nyields at the level of land blocks. Winter wheat and spring barley yield data, representing crops planted\nover the analysed period, were used for the comparison. The results of the index–yield comparison showed\nthat vegetation indices from remote sensing data provide reliable information for yield estimation prior to\nharvest. Indices are also able to evaluate the spatial variability of a crop within the field. The results showed\nthat remote sensing data need to have detailed spatial resolution in order to provide reasonable information\nabout yield at such a detailed level.
Potential of flux-variance and surface renewal methods for sensible heat flux measurements at agricultural and forest surfaces
Fischer, Milan ; Katul, G. ; Pozníková, Gabriela ; Noormets, A. ; Domec, J.-C. ; Trnka, Miroslav ; King, J.
Two alternative micrometeorological methods, flux-variance (FV) and surface renewal (SR), based on\nmeasurements of high-frequency temperature fluctuation and Obukhov length stability parameter, were\ntested against eddy covariance (EC) sensible heat flux (H) measurements. The study was conducted at\nthree sites representing agricultural, forestry, and agroforestry systems. In terms of measurement setup,\nthese sites represented surface, roughness, and canopy top layer, respectively. As expected, the best match\nof all the methods was in the surface layer, whilst it was poorer in the roughness and canopy sublayers.\nSystematic deviation from EC across all three investigated surfaces was within 16% and 8% for FV and SR,\nrespectively. While FV resulted in higher correlation with EC measurements (0.93–0.98 vs. 0.89–0.97),\nSR provided less systematic biases (1.02–1.08 vs. 0.94–1.16). In general, both FV and SR provided slightly\nhigher H as compared to EC. We suggest that parallel deployment of FV and SR is useful, as both methods\nrequire the same instrumentation yet they are based on sufficiently different theories. Therefore, the agreement\nbetween FV and SR increases confidence in the results obtained and vice versa.
The Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method and detailed temperature profile measurements to improve data quality control
Pozníková, Gabriela ; Fischer, Milan ; Orság, Matěj ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Žalud, Zdeněk
Water plays a key role in the functionality and sustainability of ecosystems. In light of predicted climate change, research should focus on the water cycle and its individual components. The main component of water balance driving water from ecosystems is evapotranspiration (ET). One standard method for measuring ET is the Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance (BREB) method. It is based on the assumption that water vapour and heat are transported by identical eddies with equal efficiency. When using the BREB method, we assume that the profiles of temperature and air humidity are ideally logarithmic or at least consistent. Since the BREB method is usually based on measurements of temperature and humidity at only two heights, it is difficult to verify whether this assumption has been fulfilled. Potential profile inconsistencies are more likely for temperature because the sensible heat flux changes its sign more often and negative latent heat flux is not physically possible during positive sensible heat flux. We therefore conducted a field experiment using a 4-mhigh measurement mast with 20 thermocouples for detailed measurement of air temperature profiles above different covers, e.g. grassland, spring barley, and poplar plantations. Our main objective was to investigate the basic assumptions of the BREB method, i.e. the temperature profile’s consistency under various weather conditions. To be more specific, we aimed to investigate whether inflexion points occurred within the temperature profile and if so when.
Long-term productivity of short rotation coppice under decreased soil water availability
Orság, Matěj ; Fischer, Milan ; Tripathi, Abishek ; Žalud, Zdeněk ; Trnka, Miroslav
Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age (Perlin 1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in the form of wood has been used for energy purposes for millennia. The production and use of woody biomass resources has been expanding around the world. The main drivers of its use as a source of energy are diversification and mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas emissions through partial substitution for fossil fuels. An alternative to sourcing wood biomass from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the main constraint on woody biomass production and involves serious economic consequences. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate the impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of a poplar based short rotation coppice plantation over multiple growing seasons during 2011–2014. Aboveground biomass productivity of treatments with and without throughfall exclusion was assessed within this study. Our results show a systematic decline in the productivity of the plots subjected to decreased soil water availability by 30% in 2011, 20% in 2012, 49% in 2013, and 51% in 2014 compared to control plot. Aboveground biomass productivity ranged from 8.8 to 9.9 t dry matter ha−1 year−1 for the control treatment and 4.5 to 8.0 t dry matter ha−1 year−1 for the treatment with throughfall exclusion.On average, the throughfall exclusion treatment exhibited 47% less productivity than control treatment had over the entire study period.
Analysis of poplar water-use efficiency at Domanínek experimental site
Hlaváčová, M. ; Fischer, Milan ; Tripathi, Abishek ; Orság, Matěj ; Trnka, Miroslav
The main objective of this study was to test if water-use efficiency (WUE) values are higher for short-rotation poplar coppice than they are for field crops. WUE of woody biomass was determined for 16 trees within a short-rotation poplar coppiced culture (poplar clone J-105) in the within the Czech Republic during the 2013 growing season. Total WUE of woody biomass for the 16 measured trees was 4.93 g kg−1 when calculated with the data set without a vapour pressure deficit condition and 4.63 g kg−1 when calculated with the data set with a vapour pressure deficit condition. Poplar clone J-105 is a tree species with relatively high WUE, but some crops or short-rotation coppice species can reach higher or comparable WUE values.
Leaf area index development and radiation use efficiency of a poplar short rotation coppice culture
Tripathi, Abishek ; Fischer, Milan ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Orság, Matěj ; Vanbeveren, S. ; Marek, Michal V.
Leaf area index (LAI) is the most appropriate parameter for analyzing canopy structure and crop productivity. LAI and radiation use efficiency (RUE) were estimated to evaluate the productivity of a short rotation coppice culture of a poplar clone. RUE was calculated as the ratio between total aboveground woody biomass and available photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) accumulated during one growing season. Prior to coppicing, LAI reached a maximum value of 7.3 (in 2009), whereas the maximum LAI after coppicing was 6.8 (in 2012). The maximum RUE reached prior to coppicing was 0.25 g mol−1 (in 2009), while after coppicing it was 0.20 g mol−1 (in 2012), which did not represent a significant difference (p > 0.05).
Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration
Pozníková, Gabriela ; Fischer, Milan ; Pohanková, Eva ; Žalud, Zdeněk ; Trnka, Miroslav
Evapotranspiration (ET) represents the main water-loss part of the water balance in agricultural landscape. The reliable quantification of the agricultural field ET is, however, still a challenge. To calculate ET, the Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) method was used in this study. It is based on measurements of the temperature and humidity gradients and radiation balance with the soil heat flux. Calculated ET was further used to quantify crop coefficient (Kc). Subsequently, we analysed the crop coefficient of spring barley during one growing season since 7th May 2013 to 30th July 2013. We used the data obtained above 1-ha spring barley field in Bystřice nad Pernštejnem, Czech Republic. In particular, we investigated how Kc correlates to climatic conditions as rainfall and soil humidity and how it reflects Plant Area Index (PAI) during the year during different parts of growing season. The cumulative ET of spring barley was 228.6 mm per investigated period. For reference evapotranspiration (ETo) two different approaches were used. Typically, a reference grass cover 0.12 m high standard for Europe. On the other hand, in the USA it is common to use also alfalfa (0.50 m high). ETo of grass was 296.3 mm and ETo of alfalfa was 351.4 mm. Maximum Plant Area Index occurred in June and its value was 4.1. Mean Kc in May was 1.17 for reference grass and 1.03 for alfalfa. Similarly in June, Kc was equal to 1.16 (grass) and 1.03 (alfalfa). Finally in July, for reference grass Kc was 0.55 and 0.48 for alfalfa. The decline at the end of the growing season was caused by dry weather and ripe stage of spring barley.
Poplar-based short rotation coppice under artificially induced drought stress
Orság, Matěj ; Fischer, Milan ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Žalud, Zdeněk
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the diff erences in chosen microclimatological and ecophysiological variables between two types of experimental plots with diff erent levels of available soil water within a poplar-based (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii) short rotation coppice plantation (SRC) during summer 2012. Diversity of sap fl ow, stomatal conductance and biomass increment were monitored between two treatments during the growing season of 2012. Th ere are 3 pairs of experimental plots under research. Each pair comprises a control plot and a neighbouring plot, equipped with a roof system, draining 40 % of the incoming rain water away (the water reduced plot). Our results show that a 40 % reduction in through-fall resulted in a 26 % reduction in transpiration and a 27 % reduction in stomatal conductance over the four month study period, which led to a statistically signifi cant (p = 0.03) deceleration of above-ground biomass accumulation at the plots with water-reduced treatment.

Národní úložiště šedé literatury : Nalezeno 20 záznamů.   1 - 10další  přejít na záznam:
Viz též: podobná jména autorů
1 Fischer, Marek
1 Fischer, Martin
1 Fischer, Michael
1 Fischer, Monika
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