National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Leishmaniases and their vectors in the Middle East
Zelenková, Natálie ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases that remain major neglected tropical diseases of the world. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Middle East, with several countries reporting increasing incidence in recent years. The Middle East is a region of great political instability and the escalating conflicts in Syria, Yemen and Iraq have led to collapses of local healthcare systems. These countries have consequently seen many outbreaks of leishmaniasis. War is associated with refugee crisis that enables further spread of the disease to previously non-endemic areas. L. major and L. tropica are the main causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis and species of the L. donovani complex are the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis in this region. Many species of the genus Phlebotomus occur here, with P. papatasi and P. sergenti being among the most abundant proven local vectors. Rodents and dogs are considered to be the main reservoir hosts of the infection. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarize the occurence of leishmaniases in the Middle Eastern countries in the context of the current situation in this region.
Molecular taxonomy of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe
Grešová, Markéta ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Brzoňová, Jana (referee)
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are small blood sucking insects which are only proven vectors of neglected tropical disease called leishmaniasis. Sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus act as vectors in the Old World and those of genus Lutzomyia are vectors in the New World. However, not all of them are capable of transmitting the disease. It is therefore crutial to conclusively determinate the species and have up-to-date knowledge of their natural occurence. Routine identification based on morphological characters is challenging due to intraspecific variability of these or their possible damage during the capture and preparation. In adition, correct assessment of distinctive cahracters, especially for females, is difficult and requires certain expertise. Thus, approaches of molecular taxonomy have been recently increasingly used for sand flies species determination. This thesis presents usage of DNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF protein profiling for routine determination of sand flies caught in southeastern Europe and adjacent regions, where we have lack of information of present sand flies species. Another part of this thesis focus on closer examination of relations between selected closely related species within species complexes. Key words: Phlebotomus, molacular identification, DNA...
Art and Craft and Industry - Inclusion in Subjekt of daily Necessities
The theoretical part of this bachelor thesis deals with the development of the design profession from the industrial revolution to the present and with the influences of important personalities, groupings, schools and movements on the problematic of relationship of arts, crafts and industry. In the theoretical part of the text some attention will be paid to the development of the toy, and this theoretical knowledge will result in a practical part, the concept of which transforms and updates the artifact from the 1960s. Basic knowledge of ergonomics, knowledge of design, his development and work in the field of children's toys will provide us with the basics for practical release.
Leishmaniases of northern Africa and their vectors
Hanušniaková, Ida ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Sádlová, Jovana (referee)
Leishmaniasis belongs to the most important world human as well as animal diseases. It occurs in almost all continents. Its nearest area of occurrence from our point of view is the Mediterranean, including the states of North Africa. A significant portion of all registered cases occurs here and the prevalence has been increasing in last decades. Algeria is the second in the world in number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and in the other countries the situation is quite similar. Two major forms of the disease occur in the region: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmania major is the most abundant species in the are, followed by L. infantum and L. tropica. In the Old World, leishmanises are transmitted by sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus. The most important proven vectors are Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. perfiliewi or P. perniciosus. Rodents are considered to be main reservoir organisms (Psammomys obesus, Meriones shawi), together with dogs in which canine leishmaniasis may occur with clinical symptoms; at the same time they serve as reservoirs of the disease. This bachelor thesis summarizes occurrence of individual Leishmania species, clinical symptoms they cause in the hosts and their vectors in North Africa. Key words: leishmaniasis, phlebotomus, North Africa, Leishmania,...
Trypanosomes of ungulates with emphasis on Europe
Brotánková, Anna ; Rádrová, Jana (advisor) ; Dvořák, Vít (referee)
Trypanosomes are veterinary and medically important parasites causing serious diseases and significant losses in livestock farming. Two subgenuses of trypanosomes were identified from ungulates in Europe. Trypanosoma evansi and T. equiperdum, flagellates of the subgenus Trypanozoon, could cause fatal infections to their hosts. Other Trypanosoma theileri, T. cervi, T. stefanskii, T. melophagium and T. theodori were discovered in European ungulates from the second subgenus Megatrypanum. These trypanosomes are common parasites in Europe, especially Trypanosoma theileri and T. cervi. On the other hand, T. evansi and T. equiperdum are occuring rather sporadically. Trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum are less significant because their lower medical and economical impact. They are generally apathogenic and so do not cause any clinical signs. Both morphological and phylogenetic informations of European trypanosomes are summarized in this work as well as details about their pathology, vectors and records of evidence in Europe.
Alternative vectors of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)
Jursová, Klára ; Sádlová, Jovana (advisor) ; Dvořák, Vít (referee)
The life cycle of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae) alternates between vertebrate hosts and insect vectors. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were supposed to be the only arthropod vectors supporting morphological and functional development of the parasite including production of infective metacyclic forms capable to infect the vertebrate host. Recently also other bloodsucking arthropods have been suggested for possible transmission of some Leishmania species. The bachelor thesis summarizes the recent knowledge about these alternative vectors of Leishmania.
Identification of bloodmeal sources in phlebotomine sand flies and other bloodfeeding arthropods
Kykalová, Barbora ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Spitzová, Tatiana (referee)
Hematophagous arthropods that are involved in transmission of many infectious diseases have profound importance in human and veterinary medicine. Bloodmeal identification considerably contributes towards better understanding of vector-borne diseases and vector-host interaction. It reveals epidemiologically significant data on reservoir hosts and degree of anthropophily of studied arthropods. Methods of bloodmeal identification evolved from field observations, serological and DNA-based methods towards protein analyses. Nowadays, the most frequent methods are DNA-based methods but new methods are still being developed. This bachelor thesis summarizes and compares used methods with the primary focus on phlebotomine sand flies, which are involved in transmission of leishmaniases. Key words: sand flies, bloodmeal identification, hematophagous arthropods, analysis
Leishmaniasis and its vectors in the Balkan area
Grešová, Markéta ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Spitzová, Tatiana (referee)
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases transmitted by bloodsucking sand flies, which are distributed worldwide. Beside America, Africa and Asia, they are also present in southern Europe, mostly in the Mediterranean area, where L. infantum causes mainly visceral, rarely also cutaneous form of the disease. Balkan Penninsula is also one of endemic regions. Here, thanks to huge malaria eradication campaign in the 1950's, number of cases declined massively. Nevertheless, leishmaniasis has been reemerging since then. The main vectors of human leishmaniasis are sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius, mainly P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi. The main reservoir animal is a domestic dog. Currently, the epidemiological significance of domestic cats and wild animals (hare, jackal, fox) is also studied. Most cases of human leishmaniasis are reported from Albania and Greece, where L. tropica is also present, causing cutaneous form of the disease. The aim of this thesis is to summarize the occurrence of leishmaniasis and its vectors in individual Balkan countries. Key words: leishmaniasis, Europe, Balkan, L. infantum, sand flies
Comparison of molecular methods for identification of sand flies
Gottfried, Vítězslav ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of important human and veterinary infectious diseases which are distributed mainly in subtropical and tropical areas around the world. The most important transmited infection is leishmaniosis. Over 900 species and subspecies of Phlebotominae subfamily have been described and classified into 32 genera. Their taxonomy has not been fully resolved yet. Morphological identification of each species is time-consuming, some species are even morphologically undefinable. For these reasons the molecular methods of identification are used. The methods described in this bachelor thesis study molecular structures and etologic displays. All these methods had been used for species identification of sand flies and are followed by examples of usage, adventages and disadvantages.
Molecular identification of phlebotomine sand flies
Hlavačková, Kristýna ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Straka, Jakub (referee)
This diploma thesis is focused on species identification of sand flies belonging to two genera of the subfamily Phlebotominae, genus Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Genus Phlebotomus together with the genus Lutzomyia of New World include the only proven vectors of Leishmania parasites and they are also carriers of viral and bacterial infections. Species of the genus Sergentomyia are proven vectors of sister genus Sauroleishmania that infects reptiles, but for several decades there have been speculations about their possible involvement in the transmission of mammalian Leishmania species. These suspicions arise mainly from repeated findings of mammalian Leishmania parasites in their digestive system. Correct species determination of medically significant hematophagous arthropods is very important especially for purposes of epidemiological studies so that efficient vector control may be correctly set. Routine identification of sand flies is based on morphological characters located mainly on their heads and genitalia. However, these characters may be variable within a species, they require certain expertise and in the field samples they may be damaged, making proper species identification impossible. This thesis therefore presents two alternatives of sand fly identification based on molecular...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 19 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
4 DVOŘÁK, Vlastimil
8 DVOŘÁK, Václav
2 Dvořák, V.
2 Dvořák, Viktor
1 Dvořák, Vladimír
3 Dvořák, Vladimír,
4 Dvořák, Vlastimil
7 Dvořák, Vojtěch
1 Dvořák, Vojtěch Adalbert
8 Dvořák, Václav
1 Dvořák, Vítězslav
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