National Repository of Grey Literature 23 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The role of hippoboscids in avian trypanosomes transmission
Santolíková, Anežka ; Svobodová, Milena (advisor) ; Dvořák, Vít (referee)
The aim of this thesis was to map the presence of avian hippoboscids in Czechia, clarify which lineages of avian trypanosomes are transmitted by them, and to test vector specificity of the trypanosomes that were isolated from louse flies earlier. In the years 2017 - 2018 we found 7 species of louse flies, namely Ornithomya avicularia (91), O. biloba (267), O. fringillina (45), Ornithoica turdi (6), Stenepteryx hirundinis (1) and Ornithophila metallica (1). The specificity of O. biloba and S. hirundinis toward Hirudinidae was confirmed. The other louse fly species were found on both migrant and resident birds. The phylogenetic analysis of gene for cytochrome c oxidase I which contained a newly characterised species O. metallica revealed that it is related to O. turdi. Avian trypanosomes were present in the following species: O. biloba (prevalence 20 %), O. avicularia (8 %), a O. fringillina (4 %). All trypanosome sequences from hippoboscids belonged to the avian trypanosome group corvi-culicavium. Phylogenetic analysis of trypanosome sequences confirmed the presence of five lineages of avian trypanosomes. Four trypanosome sequences from birds formed two new basal clades. Most of the trypanosome sequences from hippoboscids formed a sister group to the previously described lineages. The vector specificity of...
Bloodmeal sources of European sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) and methods of their identification
Kykalová, Barbora ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Kočišová, Alica (referee)
Leishmaniasis is a dangerous neglected disease with worldwide distribution. It is transmitted exclusively by phlebotomine sand flies. Knowledge of host feeding patterns provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction. Moreover, the identification of host preferences can help to design effective protective measures. Over the years, many methods were adapted for this purpose. Nowadays, serological methods and DNA-based approaches in many variants are the most common ones. Markers of choice for sequencing analyses are mitochondrial genes, especially cytochrome B. Novel methods for host identification in sand flies are based on protein analysis. The method of peptide mass mapping was successfully tested and presented. This thesis presents results of blood meal identification in laboratory-reared female sand flies as well as specimens collected in the field surveys of different Balkan countries. It compares basic identification method, sequencing analysis, based on two different gene markers (cytochrome B, prepronociceptin) and two other DNA based methods, multiplex PCR and RFLP. It also presents use of peptide mass mapping, an inovative method of, mass spektrometry, and compares this approach with traditional DNA-based methods. Key words: Phlebotomus; host identification; DNA-based...
Emergency vascular acces in pediatric patients
Dvořák, Vít ; Sentivanová, Lenka (advisor) ; Hocková, Jana (referee)
Vascular access in pediatric emergency patients is essential with no doubt. This thesis is based on many scientific publications and studies focused on intravenous and intraoseal access and their aplication in pediatric emergency patients undergoing pre-hospital or hospital treatment. First part is theoretical and is concerned about technique of insertion and post-procedure care. The next part is about comparing different techniques and their successful inserting for the first attempt. The last part is aimed at research with predefined goals. The main goal of this thesis is to give a summary of available knowledge about the peripheral intravenous access and intraoseal access in pediatric emergency patients. The research is aimed at selected group of respondents and their knowledge of techniques and treating of intravenous and intraoseal access. The last goal is to find out which access is preferable in sudden cardiac arrest in children. Data obtained from different groups of respondents approved that none of the groups have sufficient knowledge in inserting and carrying the intravenous and intraoseal access in pediatric emergency patients. In an analysis of data the best results gain paramedics. The majority of respondents would prefer intravenous access in case of sudden cardiac arrest. As a...
Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia in sand flies and mosquitoes.
Rehbergerová, Markéta ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Jančářová, Magdaléna (referee)
Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (Proteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) are maternally inherited intracellular symbionts of many species of arthropods (Arthropoda) and filarial nematodes (Nematoda, Secernentea). Due to the ability of Wolbachia to induce reproductive anomalies in their hosts and to reduce their infection by pathogenic organisms and viruses, they are profoundly studied. This bachelor thesis is a summary of available information regarding interactions of Wolbachia with mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), vectors of many important infectious pathogens, and possibilities of their use in the control of pathogen transmission. Key words: Wolbachia, Phlebotominae, Culicidae, vector-borne diseases, symbiosis, vector control method
Leishmaniases and their vectors in the Middle East
Zelenková, Natálie ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases that remain major neglected tropical diseases of the world. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Middle East, with several countries reporting increasing incidence in recent years. The Middle East is a region of great political instability and the escalating conflicts in Syria, Yemen and Iraq have led to collapses of local healthcare systems. These countries have consequently seen many outbreaks of leishmaniasis. War is associated with refugee crisis that enables further spread of the disease to previously non-endemic areas. L. major and L. tropica are the main causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis and species of the L. donovani complex are the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis in this region. Many species of the genus Phlebotomus occur here, with P. papatasi and P. sergenti being among the most abundant proven local vectors. Rodents and dogs are considered to be the main reservoir hosts of the infection. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarize the occurence of leishmaniases in the Middle Eastern countries in the context of the current situation in this region.
Molecular taxonomy of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe
Grešová, Markéta ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Brzoňová, Jana (referee)
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are small blood sucking insects which are only proven vectors of neglected tropical disease called leishmaniasis. Sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus act as vectors in the Old World and those of genus Lutzomyia are vectors in the New World. However, not all of them are capable of transmitting the disease. It is therefore crutial to conclusively determinate the species and have up-to-date knowledge of their natural occurence. Routine identification based on morphological characters is challenging due to intraspecific variability of these or their possible damage during the capture and preparation. In adition, correct assessment of distinctive cahracters, especially for females, is difficult and requires certain expertise. Thus, approaches of molecular taxonomy have been recently increasingly used for sand flies species determination. This thesis presents usage of DNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF protein profiling for routine determination of sand flies caught in southeastern Europe and adjacent regions, where we have lack of information of present sand flies species. Another part of this thesis focus on closer examination of relations between selected closely related species within species complexes. Key words: Phlebotomus, molacular identification, DNA...
Art and Craft and Industry - Inclusion in Subjekt of daily Necessities
The theoretical part of this bachelor thesis deals with the development of the design profession from the industrial revolution to the present and with the influences of important personalities, groupings, schools and movements on the problematic of relationship of arts, crafts and industry. In the theoretical part of the text some attention will be paid to the development of the toy, and this theoretical knowledge will result in a practical part, the concept of which transforms and updates the artifact from the 1960s. Basic knowledge of ergonomics, knowledge of design, his development and work in the field of children's toys will provide us with the basics for practical release.
Leishmaniases of northern Africa and their vectors
Hanušniaková, Ida ; Dvořák, Vít (advisor) ; Sádlová, Jovana (referee)
Leishmaniasis belongs to the most important world human as well as animal diseases. It occurs in almost all continents. Its nearest area of occurrence from our point of view is the Mediterranean, including the states of North Africa. A significant portion of all registered cases occurs here and the prevalence has been increasing in last decades. Algeria is the second in the world in number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and in the other countries the situation is quite similar. Two major forms of the disease occur in the region: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmania major is the most abundant species in the are, followed by L. infantum and L. tropica. In the Old World, leishmanises are transmitted by sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus. The most important proven vectors are Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. perfiliewi or P. perniciosus. Rodents are considered to be main reservoir organisms (Psammomys obesus, Meriones shawi), together with dogs in which canine leishmaniasis may occur with clinical symptoms; at the same time they serve as reservoirs of the disease. This bachelor thesis summarizes occurrence of individual Leishmania species, clinical symptoms they cause in the hosts and their vectors in North Africa. Key words: leishmaniasis, phlebotomus, North Africa, Leishmania,...
Trypanosomes of ungulates with emphasis on Europe
Brotánková, Anna ; Rádrová, Jana (advisor) ; Dvořák, Vít (referee)
Trypanosomes are veterinary and medically important parasites causing serious diseases and significant losses in livestock farming. Two subgenuses of trypanosomes were identified from ungulates in Europe. Trypanosoma evansi and T. equiperdum, flagellates of the subgenus Trypanozoon, could cause fatal infections to their hosts. Other Trypanosoma theileri, T. cervi, T. stefanskii, T. melophagium and T. theodori were discovered in European ungulates from the second subgenus Megatrypanum. These trypanosomes are common parasites in Europe, especially Trypanosoma theileri and T. cervi. On the other hand, T. evansi and T. equiperdum are occuring rather sporadically. Trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum are less significant because their lower medical and economical impact. They are generally apathogenic and so do not cause any clinical signs. Both morphological and phylogenetic informations of European trypanosomes are summarized in this work as well as details about their pathology, vectors and records of evidence in Europe.
Alternative vectors of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)
Jursová, Klára ; Sádlová, Jovana (advisor) ; Dvořák, Vít (referee)
The life cycle of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae) alternates between vertebrate hosts and insect vectors. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were supposed to be the only arthropod vectors supporting morphological and functional development of the parasite including production of infective metacyclic forms capable to infect the vertebrate host. Recently also other bloodsucking arthropods have been suggested for possible transmission of some Leishmania species. The bachelor thesis summarizes the recent knowledge about these alternative vectors of Leishmania.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 23 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
4 DVOŘÁK, Vlastimil
10 DVOŘÁK, Václav
2 Dvořák, V.
2 Dvořák, Viktor
1 Dvořák, Vladimír
3 Dvořák, Vladimír,
4 Dvořák, Vlastimil
7 Dvořák, Vojtěch
1 Dvořák, Vojtěch Adalbert
10 Dvořák, Václav
1 Dvořák, Vítězslav
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