National Repository of Grey Literature 65 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Polioviruses and poliovirus vaccines
Špika, Ondřej ; Drda Morávková, Alena (advisor) ; Přikryl, David (referee)
Polio is one of the diseases that humanity has been successfully fighting for more than half a century. The poliomyelitis virus that causes the disease can in some cases attack the nerve cells controlling the limbs and cause their paralysis. Especially dangerous are then the cases of infections of the respiratory neurons, which can lead to death without help. Mainly thanks to the scientists Salk and Sabin, two vaccines were created which, despite their disadvantages, successfully reduced the worldwide incidence of polio by 99%. However, there are still places where no vaccine is commonly available and where the virus is still endemic. The Salk vaccine, which was used first, uses an inactivated virus to prompt an immune response. However, its disadvantage is lower efficiency. Several years later, Sabin came with his live attenuated vaccine, unable to destroy human nerve cells. Sabin's vaccine conquered the world with simple oral administration and high efficacy. The disadvantage, which arises especially today, is the possibility of reverse mutation of the virus and the formation of pathogenic forms. This vaccine- derived virus can cause local outbreaks at low vaccination sites. Therefore, the use of the Sabine vaccine is being abandoned in favor of the Salk vaccine, possibly along with boosters. But...
Interaction of HIV-1 infection and expresion of endogenous retroviruses
Machač, David ; Elleder, Daniel (advisor) ; Drda Morávková, Alena (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to describe the effect of HIV-1 on the expression of HERV proviruses in infected cells, how the presence of HERV transcripts and proteins can affect the replication cycle of HIV-1, the composition, structure and infectivity. These interactions may have negative but also positive effects on HIV-1 infectivity. For example, the mutual presence of HIV-1 and HERV proteins encoded by the gag genes responsible for the capsid, nucleocapsid, and virion matrix, may mix together, and form aberrant capsids that will not play a correct role in the HIV-1 replication cycle. Further, due to the phenomenon called viral pseudotyping, HERV envelope glycoproteins could be incorporated into the HIV-1 membrane. This could be a pathway, how the HIV-1 could theoreticaly extend the tropism to other cells than only CD4 T-lymphocytes, macrophages and dedritic cells. Key Words: HERV, HIV-1, virus pseudotypes, retrovirus replication
Bacteriophage therapy with focus on urinary catheters biofilms
Ludvík, Vojtěch ; Drda Morávková, Alena (advisor) ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (referee)
The term of the bacteriophage therapy denotes the use of viruses for killing bacteria. My thesis refers about the use of the bacteriophage therapy in the process of treating nosocomial infections caused by the urinary tract catheterization. I focus on the bacteria that are found in the catheters' biofilms and on the selection of bacteriophages that will be capable of the enzymatically degradation of the biofilms as well as the lysis of the present bacteria. After the body fluids contact the surface of the catheter, an environment for the evolution of the biofilm begins to evolve, which leads to its fast expansion and to the development of an infection. In the case of improper hygienically measures and unreasonable duration of the catheterization, the incidence of the infections reaches 100%. Because of the presence of the biofilm, the bacteria demonstrate high resistance to antibiotics, which is why the infections often aren't suppressed and may have fatal consequences. If applied, the bacteriophage cocktail and genetically modified bacteriophages can successfully treat the infection and even prevent from its development. Keywords: Bacteriophage therapy, urinary tract infection, catheterization, biofilm, EPS
Therapeutic approaches to Ebola virus infections
Tomanová, Tereza ; Drda Morávková, Alena (advisor) ; Matyska Lišková, Petra (referee)
Ebola virus is a very dangerous virus because of its high mortality rate and unavailability of an approved vaccine or medicament. There was more than 31 000 infected people since the first epidemic in 1976 and almost 13 000 of them died (cdc.gov). Ebola virus usually occures in the west Africa, its occure on the other continents was rare in the past and it was always just one case. There is one exception though, strain Reston of Ebola virus. Strain Reston was spread from Philippines to the USA while deporting macaques. Strain Reston is able to infect people, but there is no case of death after being infected with this strain (who.int). This occurence in the USA was a warning sign of how easily could Ebola virus travel to other continents. If it was one of the deadly strains, the results would be fatal. Ebola virus is a threat and it is necessary to develop effective vaccine and drug. This bachelor's thesis is about the Ebola virus, its genome, life cycle and mainly about the options of therapy of the ebola virus disease. It is focused on presently tested vaccines and drugs against the Ebola virus.

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