National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Regional flow and number of microembolisms in the common carotid artery at different levels of hemodynamics controlled by VA-ECMO.
Janák, David ; Kittnar, Otomar (advisor) ; Danzig, Vilém (referee) ; Bešík, Josef (referee)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a method that allows extracorporeal life support in potentially reversible life-threatening conditions affecting the heart or lungs which are refractory to conventional treatment. Depending on the parameters of its setting, this method affects the haemodynamics of the cardiovascular system and the perfusion of the target organ. From the point of view of its character, the necessity for invasive application, and the function thereof in the conditions of the cardiovascular system, ECMO is regarded as a risky method accompanied by a number of complications. Among the critical complications are thromboembolic complications affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and haemorrhagic complications. The goal of this paper is to present and verify the prerequisites for the formation of periprocedural embolisms affecting the CNS and to evaluate the regional haemodynamics of the CNS. This is done by analysing the presence of embolisms and by analysing the parameters of blood flow rates in the right common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis-ACC) and the corresponding oxygenation of the brain tissue during various flow rate parameters generated by the ECMO support on induced heart failure in a biological porcine model. In the first section of the paper, 8...
Electrical stability of the heart during hypothermia-induced potassium plasmatic level changes and after modulation of the autonomic nervous system by renal denervation.
Kudlička, Jaroslav ; Kittnar, Otomar (advisor) ; Nováková, Marie (referee) ; Danzig, Vilém (referee)
Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are a common cause of sudden cardiac death. Moderate therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) is routinely used in post-resuscitation care for anticipated neuroprotective effects. However, the safety of MTH in terms of the electrical stability of the heart has not been satisfactorily proved yet. Also, the increased sympathetic tone in patients with heart failure contributes to a higher incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of this work was to verify the safety of MTH as regards the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the pig biomodel, especially in relation to spontaneous changes in the kalemia and QT interval. Furthermore, we assumed that renal denervation (RDN) could reduce the inducibility of VF. In the first part of the thesis, the extracorporeal cooling was introduced in fully anesthetized swine (n = 6) to provide MTH. Inducibility of VF was studied by programmed ventricular stimulation (8 basic stimuli with up to 4 extrastimuli) three times in each biomodel under the following conditions: during normothermia (NT), after reaching the core temperature 32 řC (HT) and after another 60 minutes of stable hypothermia (HT60). VF inducibility, effective ventricular refractory period (ERP), QTc interval, and potassium plasma level were measured. In...
Changes of the electric field of the heart in disorders of glucose metabolism and ways of influencing them by correction of impaired autonomic nervous regulation
Fialová, Elena ; Kittnar, Otomar (advisor) ; Danzig, Vilém (referee) ; Ošťádal, Petr (referee)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is not just a simple metabolic disorder, however, it is considered to be a cardiovascular disease of a metabolic origin. This is apparent especially when speaking about type 2 diabetes (DM II). Patients with DM have a high occurrence of vegetative nervous system (VNS) disorders that manifest themselves as an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system that correlates with peripheral autonomic neuropathy and is considered to be the major pathophysiological mechanism for the development of DM II. The objective of our study was to determine whether a comprehensive spa treatment (ST) may affect the level of the sympathetic tone of patients suffering from DM II. As an indicator of the sympathetic tone, selected electrocardiographic parameters derived from the HRV, microvolt T-wave alternans, and microvolt R-wave alternans were evaluated. The electrophysiological examination of patients was performed before and after a three-week spa treatment using the KARDiVAR system. The method is used to examine the current state of the autonomic nervous system and carry out an analysis of risk factors and adaptive capabilities of the organism. The results showed favorable changes in DM II patients after the ST, primarily in terms of reduced sympathetic adrenal system activity,...
Selected differences in pathophysiology of cardiovascular system in women
Yang, Shiann-Guey ; Kittnar, Otomar (advisor) ; Ošťádal, Petr (referee) ; Danzig, Vilém (referee)
(summary of doctoral dissertation) It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that there are important differences of many cardiovascular disorders including ventricular tachycardias in men and women. Gender differences have been observed in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of various ventricular arrhythmias. Physiological menopause occurs as a part of a woman's normal aging process being based on the natural cessation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries. The dramatic fall in circulating estrogens levels at menopause impacts many tissues including cardiovascular system. Because the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) rises significantly after menopause, it has been hypothesized that women's CHD advantage before menopause (in comparison to men of the same age) could be due to the protective effects of estrogens. However, controversial results have been reported since early nineties until today. While some studies found reduction in the incidence of CHD and in mortality from cardiovascular diseases some other studies failed to provide any evidence for an independent role of estradiol levels in determining CHD in postmenopausal women and some studies even found positive association of endogenous estradiol with the risk of CHD among women above...

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