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Biotope Valuation Method of Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic 2017\n
Seják, J. ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Petříček, V. ; Prokopová, Marcela ; Cudlín, Ondřej ; Holcová, D. ; Kaprová, K. ; Melichar, J. ; Škarková, P.
The presented habitat valuation method is an amendment of the original method for evaluation and pricing of habitats in the Czech Republic developed in the Ecological Institute (Seják et al. 2003). The method is based on expert evaluation of habitat types in the Czech Republic using selected parametres expressing biodiversity value of several levels. The monetary valuation is based on restoration costs analysis. The method can be be used for the evaluation and monetary valuation of ecological value of landscape segments with practical use in ecological demage quantification but also for a comparison of several alternatives of landscape restoration projects.
Souhrnná výzkumná zpráva o řešení smluvního výzkumu, Vypracování vrstvy poskytování vybraných ekosystémových služeb v zájmovém území měst Liberec a Děčín
Cudlín, Pavel ; Pechanec, V. ; Purkyt, Jan ; Štěrbová, Lenka ; Cudlín, Ondřej ; Včeláková, Renata
Most ecosystem services assessment tools attempt to quantify services on a landscape scale using simplified biophysical models or ecological functions. The most commonly used ecosystem classifications are land use / land cover or habitat, which can be combined with other information such as soil type or vegetation biomass. The aim of the study was to quantify selected ecosystem functions in the cities of Liberec and Děčín. For the evaluation of habitat biodiversity in 2003, a complete list of habitat types was prepared for the Czech Republic, which includes habitats processed in preparation of data for the creation of a national design of Natura 2000 sites of European importance (Habitat Catalog of the Czech Republic 2001 and 2010) and detailed description of more antropgenic influenced habitat (Sejak et al., 2003, Sejak et al., 2017). For 21 functional groups of habitat types, their production function, including oxygen production and the ability to minimize temperature fluctuations (to reduce the amount of radiated heat) was estimated to provide support and regulatory services to ecosystems (Seják et al. 2010). According to the assignment of the study, Elaboration of the layer of provision of selected ecosystem functions and services in the area of ​​interest of the cities of Liberec and Děčín, biodiversity values ​​determined according to BVM method, annual biomass, oxygen and evapotranspiration production for the entire cadastral territory of Liberec Kunratická and dam Harcov and for the cadastral area of ​​Děčín.
Measured and modelled fluxes of tropospheric ozone in mountainous Norway spruce forest
Juráň, Stanislav ; Zapletal, Miloš ; Večeřa, Zbyněk ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Urban, Otmar
Tropospheric ozone fluxes (O3) were measured in Norway spruce forest at Bily Kriz, Czech Republic by eddy covariance technique. Within-canopy concentration gradient was measured by APOA-370 analysers (Horiba, Japan) in 7m, 25m and 30m above ground. Fluxes of O3 were modelled from the concentration gradient by applying Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (Raupach, 1989). Next, O3 fluxes were modelled on the basis of resistent analogy. Ozone flux measured by eddy covariance technique amounted up to 1.19 nmol m-2 s-1 on daily average and the lowest -0.75 nmol m-2 s-1. Studied forest stand was net sink for ozone in 7.14 mmol m-2 per day (=0.343 g m-2 per day). The highest ozone emission peaked during noon hours, suggesting closure of stomata due to low air temperature and ozone production due to sufficient radiation. Both models proved to be imprecise when compared to measured data in autumn-winter transition period.
Interakce v rhizosféře erikoidně mykorhizních rostlin
Vohník, Martin ; Vosátka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Cudlín, Pavel (referee) ; Kavková, Miloslava (referee)
This doctonl dissertation focuses on selected intemctions, which take place in the rhizosphere of ericoid myconhial (ErM) plmts' These include (i) interactions betwren ErM fungi and dark scptate endophýic (DsE) fungi; (ii) intenctions among ericaceous plmts md ErM and EcM fungi, and fungi with yet unresolved myconhial status; (iii) int€nctions among ErM and DSE fungi md soil testate ammbae' Main findings achieved in the frame ofthe doctoral dissertation are: Ericoid mycorrhlza rnd DsE-association simultaneously occur in roots of 8ll screened European Rhotlotkrulron species across the continent. However, their proportlons differ depending mainly on htitude. DsE.coloniation is negrtiv€|y corr€lsted with ErM colonization in roots of rl| screned rbododendrons. DsE fungi form intmcellu|ar structuÍes, which moÍphologicr||y resemble ericoid mycorrhizs. Colonization witb selected DSE stmins has neutral to negative influence on the groMh of ericaceous plants in vitro, whereas th€ eff€ct of the t}?ica| ErM fungus Rhizoscyphus ericae is neutml to positive. Effects of both types of fungi on the grosth of host plrnts are correlated with the |eve| of ErM rnd DsE co|onization. ErM fungi crn r|teÍ the negrtive effect of DSE fungi when presnt in the same root system in vitro. ErM frlngus Oidiodendron n aius...
Current possibilities for quantification and modeling of recreation services
Pechanec, V. ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Machar, I. ; Kilianová, H.
Ecosystems provide settings for a hugely diverse array of recreational activities. Recreational values are among the most well-recognized of all ecosystem services by the public, and human preferences for recreation have been well-studied by economists and other social scientists. From a spatial perspective, we can map sources of recreational value, sinks of recreational value, users of a particular recreation area for a given activity, and the spatial flow that connects users to specific recreational areas. The text presents two key approaches of modelling tools InVEST and ARIES. Methodological approaches are compared with each other and the requirements for data confronted with national data sources.
Sustainable use of natural resources in the Krkonoše Mountains National Park under climate change
Jakubínský, Jiří ; Cudlín, Ondřej ; Plch, Radek ; Purkyt, Jan ; Hellerová, S. ; Cudlín, Pavel
The ongoing climate change and anthropogenic activities in the landscape can significantly influence the environmental values of the Krkonoše Mts. landscape and the resulting benefits for the humans. The paper presents selected partial results of the project, focused on the study of processes mentioned and mutual relations on the territory of the Krkonoše Mountains National Park. In particular, current problems and their causes were analysed in several key sectors related to the use of natural resources in the territory of the National Park – specifically agriculture, forestry, water resources, settlement structure and tourism. The topic is addressed using the DPSIR methodological framework whose individual components (socio-economic causes, pressures, state, profits and human responses) are quantified using a set of data available between 1991 and 2015. The development of the monitored indicators is expressed using an index of change, comparing the state at the beginning and the end of the given period. Based on the assessment of the development of individual DPSIR components, then it is possible to describe the trajectory of changes in the sub-sectors and to propose appropriate adaptation measures. The overall situation in water resources utilization can be described as rather positive, with a slightly improving trend. However, from the long-term point of view it will be necessary to realize measures to increasing water retention capacity of the landscape and maintain water consumption of big consumers, especially water for snowmaking of ski slopes.\n\n
Prediction of changes in landscape and biodiversity development as important factors in maintaining the current state of forest ecosystems
Cudlín, Ondřej ; Pechanec, V. ; Purkyt, Jan ; Štěrbová, Lenka ; Holá, Š. ; Cienciala, E. ; Cudlín, Pavel
We used a combination of several analytical tools to analyse change and predict the land use, carbon storage and biodiversity assessment in the cultural landscape. First, the GIS layer, consisted of Habitat mapping (NCA CR 2014) for 138 natural and close to nature habitats and Corine LC for 54 more anthropically influenced habitats, was created. The Land Change Modeler (scenario type - business as usual, pixel resolution 500 m) was used to predict the development of land cover on the basis of data comparison in several historical periods (Corine LC from 1990, 2000, 2006, 2012). We also did prediction of carbon storage under climate change in model InVEST 3.0 – carbon. Changes in carbon storage were calculated from four carbon pools: above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, necromass and soil organic carbon. To assess and predict the changes in biodiversity in the \nforest-agriculture landscape we used the model GLOBIO 3, which works with five basic driving forces for biodiversity loss: land use, infrastructure, fragmentation of territory, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change. Last used model Marxan enables us to select up to now unprotected areas with a high degree of biodiversity and naturalness of habitats for environmentally friendly agriculture and forestry management.\n
Exploring knowledge and attitudes towards climate change among a study sample from Khartoum State, Sudan
Alhuseen, Ahmed ; Kozová, M. ; Ismaeel, I. ; Cudlín, Pavel
In spite of an adaptation plan endorsed by the city’s authorities, Khartoum State, the capital of Sudan, has repetitively\nexperienced a series of ravaging climate variability impacts. As in similar cases elsewhere, there are\nindications of financial and institutional incapacities and shortfalls to run the adaptation process, as well as\nlack of public knowledge about climate change. It has been argued that having well-informed communities in\nsome developing countries has reduced vulnerability and exposure to climate-origin disasters. Aiming to provide\nquantitative insight into the community’s knowledge and attitudes about climate change, this study presents\nthe results of a survey carried out in 2014 in a simple random sample of Khartoum State residents encompassing\n395 households. Data analysis showed that >75% of the respondents were aware of both the term “climate\nchange” and its main causes. Due to certain cultural and religious factors, however, familiarity with its\nassociated risks was less (25–75%). Moreover, knowledge regarding the ongoing government efforts, leading\ninstitutions, participating non-government organizations, and beliefs about the capability of Khartoum State\nauthorities to adapt the city to the foreseen impacts was found to be low (<25%). Of the respondents, 49% believed\nthat both human activities and God are responsible for causing climate change. Seventy-nine per cent\nof the respondents were interested in acquiring information about climate change, but only 55.3% frequently\nobtain it. Although 79% of the respondents would agree or strongly agree to pay in order to mitigate climate\nchange, 50.4% believed that nothing had been done by local government to mitigate that change. The study\nprovides unprecedented insight into knowledge and attitudes towards climate change among Khartoum State\nhouseholds. The results can be used by city authorities and government politicians to support ongoing adaptive\nprocedures and decision-making while narrowing the knowledge gap concerning climate change risks.
Forest regeneration within the treeline ecotone in the Giant Mountains under climate change
Cudlín, Ondřej ; Chumanová-Vávrová, Eva ; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda ; Heřman, Michal ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Cudlín, Pavel
Natural regeneration of mountain spruce forests began in the Giant Mountains 25 years ago after a reduction\nof severe and long-enduring air pollution. This process has been influenced by climatic change.\nThe aim of our contribution was to present background data for the potential elevational shift of spruce\nregeneration under conditions of climate change. These upslope shifts may also depend on constraints\nsuch as climate extremes, unfavourable soil conditions, absence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts, and lack of\nmicrosites suitable for seedlings. Since 2014, we have studied the main driving factors affecting Norway\nspruce regeneration, and in particular soil conditions, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, ground vegetation cover,\nand forest health, in six transects across the treeline ecotone located on a NW-to-NE transect through\nthe Giant Mountains. Microclimatic measurements showed that the mean difference in growing season\ntemperature between the montane spruce forests and forests at the treeline was −0.54°C. The model\nHADGEM2 predicted that in 20 years the temperature at the treeline will be similar to the current one at\nmontane elevations. The difference in prevailing soil types between the montane spruce forests and forests\nat the current treeline (i.e. podzol vs. ranker type) could be an important factor limiting success of the\nupslope spreading of spruce. Furthermore, areas covered by microsites favourable for natural spruce regeneration,\nespecially spruce litter patches, decaying wood, mosses, and Avenella flexuosa stands, were\nshown to decrease with increasing elevation. It is likely that spruce will move upslope in response to climate\nchange, but the process is likely to be slow or even blocked for some periods, especially by unfavourable\nsoil conditions and climatic extremes.

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