National Repository of Grey Literature 37 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Hormones and Competitive Behavior
Sýkora, Zdeněk ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Bauer, Michal (referee)
The thesis aims to contribute to the literature on the biological underpinnings of important economic behaviors. Financial markets can become dangerously unstable from many reasons such as the hormones contained in our bodies. We primarily focus on the effect of basal testosterone and cortisol on willingness to compete and risk taking. We also investigate their interaction called the dual-hormone hypothesis, because it has not been sufficiently analyzed and replicated so far. We run a controlled laboratory experiment with 96 university students and have gender-balanced dataset, thus we can also examine gender differences. We find no support that higher testosterone increase willingness to compete in men as opposed to most of the recent literature. Moreover, higher levels of testosterone decrease competitiveness but only for women. We further find positive effect of the 2D:4D ratio for women and negative effect of trait anxiety for men on competitiveness. There are also substantial gender differences in competitive and risk taking behavior. We cannot confirm the dual-hormone hypothesis for willingness to compete. But we find significant support for the dual-hormone hypothesis for risk taking for women and with negative effect of testosterone on risk taking. The effects stay robust even after...
Evaluation of behavioral insights with its aplication in the Czech Republic
Makovec, Petr ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Štěpánek, Pavel (referee)
Implementing behavioral insights into policy making goes along well with widespread effort for increased efficiency. From the public budget administrator point of view, this efficiency is crucial since it directly affects the current state of the budget. The theoretical part of this thesis consists of description of the most important parts of behavioral economics that can be used during the creation and setting of public policies. It also consists of brief description of current behavioral insights teams that are already using the insights representing more realistic behavior and decision making of individuals. In the analytical part of this thesis, I provide methodology of experiment evaluation as well as result extrapolation facets and risks. Those experiments usually take place before any reasonable extension is made. I also provide financial analysis of several experiments, should they be extended to larger group of individuals. In the last chapter of the analytical part, I discuss the possibilities of implementation of behavioral economics in the Czech Republic. Based on the calculations I ran, even a small change of the environment where people make decisions can significantly improve the results of the intervention, all that with minimal costs. It is however important to point out that not all behavioral insights inspirations end with success. Application of behavioral insights into policy making has got a great potential when it comes to the Czech Republic, as I show Using two examples from Health care and taxes revenues.
Zmírňování kognitivních zkreslení: Jak udělat rozhodování v byznyse racionálnější?
Kučera, Tomáš ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Potužák, Pavel (referee)
The thesis is concerned with cognitive biases, especially with confirmation bias, and with various approaches to their mitigation. It elaborates on three main categories of debiasing strategies, namely increasing incentives, adjusting the environment in order to avoid or offset the bias, and training people in recognizing the situations in which a bias occurs and in mitigating the effects of the bias. An experiment in which the patterns of information selection and the effects of a debiasing training were investigated is reported. The results show that participants exhibited confirmation bias both in the selection of information and in the information processing, and that debiasing training effectively decreased the level of confirmation bias by 33 % at the 5% significance level. The debiasing training took the form of a short video which included information about confirmation bias and its impact on judgement, and mitigation strategies.
Cognitive biases: How much are we influenced by previous rating? Effect of previous rating on the following "quality" of the movie.
Michňák, Matěj ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Máslo, Lukáš (referee)
This thesis examines whether our choice of movie rating is influenced by previous rating based on a simple web experiment. There are 2 groups - group of laymen from the ranks of students and group of active movie fans. Each participant was randomly distributed into one of 3 subgroups in his group. There is a control subgroup with no previous rating, a treatment subgroup with low previous rating and a treatment subgroup with high previous rating. In 3 out of 4 treatment subgroups there was found out using regression analysis significant change of average rating in comparison to control subgroups by more than 1 point on scale 1 to 10. There wasn´t found out smaller bias towards previous rating in group of movie fans, which was the reason why this group had been added. Subgroups with low previous rating influence average rating in both groups, subgroups with high previous rating only in group of active movie fans.
The impact of standard of living on housing construction in regions in the Czech Republic
Sochorová, Aneta ; Stroukal, Dominik (advisor) ; Cingl, Lubomír (referee)
This thesis analyzes determinants of housing construction in regions in the Czech Republic. The main research question is the impact of standard of living on housing construction. The living standard is expressed in terms of net disposable income per capita and housing construction represents the number of housing starts. Other determinants included to the model estimation are rate of unemployment, housing price and number of mortgage. Analysis works with the panel data from period 2005- 2015 and all variables are used in the logarithmic form with one year lag. The model is estimated by random effects model. The assumption about positive impact of living standard on housing construction is not confirmed, because of the statistical insignificance of variable net disposable income. In case of other variables expected effects are confirm. The increases in rate of unemployment and housing prices have the negative impact on housing construction. And opposite the number of mortgage has positive impact on housing construction.
Predicting Field Experiment Results in a Lab
Chadimová, Kateřina ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Krištoufek, Ladislav (referee)
This thesis is aimed at forecasting of experimental results in a lab environment, investigating often discussed external validity of laboratory experiments. We run a novel laboratory experiment in which the subject pool is asked to make predictions on results of a certain field experiment. The collected data is ana­ lyzed using different accuracy measures, arriving at several interesting results. First, the forecast among the 94 subjects is quite informative about the actual treatment effects although its accuracy substantially varies based on a type of accuracy measure and a particular treatment. Second, the average forecast is either more accurate or at least comparable to the mean individual forecast, proving the presence of "wisdom-of-crowds" effect.
Essays on Decision Making under Stress
Cingl, Lubomír ; Bauer, Michal (advisor) ; Skořepa, Michal (referee) ; Levínský, René (referee) ; Servátka, Maroš (referee)
Název / Title Eseje o rozhodování pod stresem / Essays on Decision Making under Stress Student PhDr. Lubomír Cingl Studijní program / Study program Ekonomické teorie Školitel / Advisor PhDr. Michal Bauer, Ph.D. Abstract This dissertation comprises three thematically connected experimental studies of human behavior under non- standard conditions: time-pressure and stress. In the Introduction section I present the argument for why it is important for economists to recognize stress research as a valid part of the research in economics and how it can contribute to the growing knowledge of human behavior in general, including several examples from the literature. The first paper presented in Chapter 2 examines the effect of time pressure on the individual propensity to herd, while the remaining two papers examine the effect of acute stress on risk-preferences and herding behavior, respectively. Herding behavior is a very important phenomenon in human decision making since social influence is very frequent in our lives and economic decisions: consider traders in financial markets, wait-and-see investors, but also purchase behavior due to fads, fashion and top-ten lists. Risk preferences are another essential factor which determines many important economic outcomes, and the assumption of their stability is a...
Informal Economy: A micro-level analysis
Vu Duc, Cuong ; Levely, Ian Vandemark (advisor) ; Cingl, Lubomír (referee)
This paper analyzes association of informal economy with demographic charac- teristics. The first part introduces the definition and composition of the informal economy and sets the theoretical background. It presents its consequences and causes from different points of view. In the second part, we isolate characteris- tics that predict the propensity to work in the informal economy using the probit model. The work finds that the direction of individual effects matches with find- ings in Latin America reported by Perry et al. (2007). Keywords Informal economy, Shadow economy, South Africa, econometrics
On the Nature of Gender Differences in Attitudes to Risk
Sýkora, Zdeněk ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Troch, Tomáš (referee)
Despite a number of studies demonstrating that women are more risk averse than men, this strong consensus has recently been questioned. In this thesis we discuss what may be the reason for such contradicting outcomes. Firstly, we describe the most common elicitation methods and compare them from the perspective of reporting gender differences in risk attitudes. We also summarize current literature in the topic. Then we describe a design and analyze original dataset from a survey experiment conducted with university students, mainly investigating responses to a general risk question. We examine the role of variables that are different between genders and can explain risk preferences to see whether the gender difference is robust. We further focus on different dimensions of risk: we ask about risk taking in driving, financial, sports, career, and health domains. Our findings show that the gender differences in risk preferences are significant, ubiquitous, and can be detected by a simple survey measure, even after controlling for additional characteristics that are known to play role in attitudes to risk and differ between men and women. This applies for all studied domains except for the health one.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Interventions to Promote the Education of Girls in Rural Cambodia
Hrabik, Brittney ; Cingl, Lubomír (advisor) ; Chytilová, Julie (referee)
0 Abstract The use of educational interventions to increase female educational attainment in developing countries has the potential to both provide women with more advantageous economic opportunities and contribute to economic growth. Achieving gender equality in education is an important first step towards achieving gender equality in the labor market. This thesis examines educational intervention programs that promote female education in rural Cambodia, and focuses in particular on conditional cash transfers. One such conditional cash transfer program in Cambodia is examined in more detail to determine its effectiveness. A qualitative evaluation was conducted in the form of focus groups and interviews with students, parents, and community members in the villages where the program was implemented. While the results of the study confirm the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers in increasing female attendance in school, the evaluation also revealed other factors that influence girls to stay in school. The study concluded that increasing the number of university-educated females in a girl's life through a mentoring program could have a positive effect on female educational attainment. Though further quantitative study is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such an intervention, this approach...

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