National Repository of Grey Literature 63 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Three Essays on Unethical Behavior
Korbel, Václav ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Glätzle-Rürtzler, Daniela (referee) ; Ibañez-Diaz, Marcela (referee) ; Münich, Daniel (referee)
This dissertation consists of three essays that explore how unethical behavior develops in adolescence. All three essays use a methodology of lab-in-the-field experiment, but each investigates questions related to unethical behavior from a different perspective. The research presented in this thesis focuses on unethical behavior in two populations: the general population of adolescents and juvenile delinquents. Combining findings from the general and problematic population of adolescents helps us to understand what factors contribute to delinquency and more importantly, what factors may attenuate it. In the first essay, we investigate whether adolescents cheat more when making a decision in groups compared to deciding as individuals and whether the process of group formation matters. The results show that, in general, groups cheat more but the results are driven primarily by younger adolescents while there is no difference between individuals and groups among older adolescents. Interestingly, the process how groups are formed does not play a role. This suggests that tendencies to cheat develop still in the adolescence and that the context in which decision is made, is important. The second essay studies how willingness to obey rules differs between juvenile delinquents and adolescents from the...
Anti-social behavior in groups
Bauer, Michal ; Cahlíková, J. ; Celik Katreniak, D. ; Chytilová, Julie ; Cingl, L. ; Želinský, T.
This paper provides strong evidence supporting the long-standing speculation that decisionmaking in groups has a dark side, by magnifying the prevalence of anti-social behavior towards outsiders. A large-scale experiment implemented in Slovakia and Uganda (N=2,309) reveals that deciding in a group with randomly assigned peers increases the prevalence of anti-social behavior that reduces everyone’s payoff but which improves the relative position of own group. The effects are driven by the influence of a group context on individual behavior, rather than by group deliberation. The observed patterns are strikingly similar on both continents.
The Economic impact of Climate Change
Abdul Zaher, Noor ; Cahlík, Tomáš (advisor) ; Chytilová, Julie (referee)
Bachelor's Thesis Proposal Institute of Economic Studies Faculty of Social Sciences Charles University in Prague Author's name and surname: Noor Abdul Zaher E-mail: noor_naimi@hotmail.com Phone: +420-774- 319370 Supervisor's name: doc. Ing. Tomáš Cahlík, CSc. Supervisor's email: cahlik@fsv,cuni.cz Notes: Please enter the information from the proposal to the Student Information System (SIS) and submit the proposal signed by you and by the supervisor to the Academic Director ("garant") of the undergraduate program. Proposed Topic: Economic Impact of the Climate Change By: Noor Abdul Zaher Research Question: Can the short term positive impacts of climate change offset the negative outcomes across different regions of the world? Motivation: Climate change and its total physical impacts on human life has been one of the key concerns of scientists for decades and it has become an essential political agenda for many world countries in recent years. Studies have identified the physical risks of the climate change as changes in precipitation patterns, shifting deserts and monsoons, sea level rise, more intense and extreme weather, destruction of marine food chain due to ocean acidification as well as changes in ocean circulations. Taking that into consideration, it is needless to argue that such physical risks do...
Electronic Records of Sales and Their Implementation in the Czech Republic
Mach, Petr ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Baxa, Jaromír (referee)
The subject of this thesis is electronic records (EET) of sales and its implementation in the Czech Republic. Because one of the main goals is to improve tax collection the first part of the theoretical section of the thesis is devoted to a brief introduction to taxes and specifically the value-added tax. The second part of the theoretical section is describing the specifics of the Czech version of electronic records of sales. First, a few models of records of sales are described and which of them was chosen and why. Then this model is described in detail, including who has to abide by it, what sales they have to record and some of the technical aspects of the system. A part is also dedicated to the associated receipt lottery and the end of the theoretical section is devoted to similar systems of electronic evidence of sales and their impacts in other countries. The practical section of the thesis is devoted to answering the question if the introduction of electronic records of sales in the Czech Republic was justified, based on fulfillment of its initial goals. The main goals were to increase the tax revenue and lowering the size of the shadow economy. In order to verify the estimate of increase in VAT revenue due to introduction of EET, calculated by the Ministry of Finance, I calculate my own...
The Truth Behind the Lies: The Experiment
Harutyunyan, Mikayel ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Matoušek, Jindřich (referee)
The Truth Behind The Lies: The Experiment. Abstract The following thesis presents an economic experiment exploring the patterns of cheating behaviors among secondary school students. The students filled in the Big Five and the Dark Triad personality inventories, for which they were rewarded. The payoff in sweets was determined by a die roll. Since the outcomes of the die throw were known only to the subjects, they could decide whether to report the real outcome of the die roll or deceive. Subsequent analysis showed that a certain fraction of participants cheated, but some of them claimed a non-maximal payoff. We also find the appeal to honesty ineffective in reducing the cheating rate. Additionally, we find positive correlation between narcissism, extraversion and cheating, while openness to experience, neuroticism and Morality, a facet of agreeableness, covary negatively with dishonesty. Individuals with poor academic ability cheat less, while subjects who perform better at the Cognitive Reflection Test appear to deceive more. Furthermore, indicators of "unstable" family environment (divorced or unemployed parents) are positively associated with cheating, whilst the effect of a more affluent family background is equivocal. Ultimately, females seem to forgo the opportunity of cheating to a full extent and...
Effects of poverty on impatience: preferences or inattention?
Bartoš, V. ; Bauer, Michal ; Chytilová, Julie ; Levely, I.
We study two psychological channels how poverty may increase impatient behavior – an effect\non time preference and reduced attention. We measured discount rates among Ugandan farmers\nwho made decisions about when to enjoy entertainment instead of working. We find that\nexperimentally induced thoughts about poverty-related problems increase the preference to\nconsume entertainment early and delay work. The effect is equivalent to a 27 p.p. increase in\nthe intertemporal rate of substitution. Using monitoring tools similar to eye tracking, a novel\nfeature for this subject pool, we show this effect is not due to a lower ability to sustain attention.
Electronic Records of Sales and Their Implementation in the Czech Republic
Mach, Petr ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Moravcová, Michala (referee)
The subject of this thesis is electronic records of sales and its implementation in the Czech Republic. Because one of the main goals is to improve tax collection the first part of the theoretical section of the thesis is devoted to a brief introduction to taxes and specifically the value-added tax. The second part of the theoretical section is describing the specifics of the Czech version of electronic records of sales. First, a few models of records of sales are described and which of them was chosen and why. Then this model is described in detail, including who has to abide by it, what sales they have to record and some of the technical aspects of the system. A part is also dedicated to the associated receipt lottery. The practical section of the thesis is devoted to answering the question if the introduction of electronic records of sales in the Czech Republic was justified, based on fulfillment of its initial goals. The main goals were to increase the tax revenue and lowering the size of the shadow economy. Apart from these goals, the practical section is also evaluating the costs of the whole project and also some public concerns are addressed. The thesis ends with a brief look at the future of records of sales in the Czech Republic.
What are the determinants of youth happiness?
Yoon, Jungin ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Hayat, Arshad (referee)
❆❜str❛❝t ❉❡s♣✐t❡ t❤❡ r❛♣✐❞ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐❝ ❣r♦✇t❤ ❛❢t❡r t❤❡ ❑♦r❡❛♥ ❲❛r✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ st❛t❡✬s ❝♦♥✲ s✐❞❡r❛❜❧❡ ✐♥✈❡st♠❡♥t ✐♥ ❡❞✉❝❛t✐♦♥✱ ❑♦r❡❛✬s s✉✐❝✐❞❡ r❛t❡ ❤❛s st❡❛❞✐❧② r✐s❡♥ ❛s t❤❡✐r ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐❝ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ❝❤❛♥❣❡✳ ❙♦✉t❤ ❑♦r❡❛♥ st✉❞❡♥ts ❛r❡ r❛♥❦❡❞ ❛t t❤❡ ❜♦tt♦♠ ♦❢ ✐♥t❡r♥❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❤❛♣♣✐♥❡ss s✉r✈❡②✳ ❆❞♦❧❡s❝❡♥❝❡ ✐s ❛♥ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ♣❡r✐♦❞ ❢♦r t❤❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ♦❢ ♣❡rs♦♥❛❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ s❡❧❢✲✐❞❡♥t✐t②✳ ❚❤❡ ♦❜❥❡❝t✐✈❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s t❤❡s✐s ✐s t♦ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t❡ ❝r♦ss s❡❝t✐♦♥❛❧ ❞❛t❛ ✐♥ t❤❡ r❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ❡❝♦❧♦❣✐❝❛❧ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣♠❡♥t ❛♥❞ ❛❞♦❧❡s❝❡♥t ❧✐❢❡ s❛t✐s❢❛❝t✐♦♥✳ ❉❛t❛ ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ✷✵✶✺ ◆❛✲ t✐♦♥❛❧ ❨♦✉t❤ P♦❧✐❝② ■♥st✐t✉t❡ ✭N = 1533 ❛❝r♦ss ✼✽ ❤✐❣❤ s❝❤♦♦❧s ✐♥ ❑♦r❡❛✮ ✐♥ ❤✐❣❤ s❝❤♦♦❧ st✉❞❡♥ts ✇❡r❡ ❛♥❛❧②s❡❞ ❛♣♣❧②✐♥❣ ❖▲❙ ❛♥❞ ♦r❞❡r❡❞ ♣r♦❜✐t ♠♦❞❡❧ ❢♦r ♠❡❛s✉r✐♥❣ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❧✐❢❡ s❛t✐s❢❛❝t✐♦♥✳ ❚❤❡ ✜♥❞✐♥❣s r❡✈❡❛❧ t❤❛t t❤❡ ♠♦st ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ✈❛r✐❛❜❧❡s ❛ss♦❝✐❛t❡❞ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❤❛♣♣✐♥❡ss ♦❢ st✉❞❡♥ts ❛r❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❤❡❛❧t❤✱ r❡❝♦❣✲ ♥✐t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐t②✱ s❝❤♦♦❧ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❣♦♦❞ ♣❡❡r r❡❧❛t✐♦♥s❤✐♣s ✐♥ ❤✐❣❤ s❝❤♦♦❧✳ ▼♦r❡ r❡s❡❛r❝❤❡rs ❛r❡ st❛rt✐♥❣ t♦ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t❡ ❛❞♦❧❡s❝❡♥ts✬ ❧✐❢❡ s❛t✐s❢❛❝✲ t✐♦♥✱ ❜✉t ❢❡✇ st✉❞✐❡s ❤❛✈❡ ❝♦♥❞✉❝t❡❞ ❧✐❢❡ s❛t✐s❢❛❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥ ❛❝❝♦r❞❛♥❝❡ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡✐r ❣❡♥❞❡r ✉s✐♥❣ ❑❈❨P❙ ❞❛t❛✳ ●❡♥❞❡r ❡✛❡❝t ✐s s✐❣♥✐✜❝❛♥t ❢♦r ♣❛r❡♥t❛❧ ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥✱ s❝❤♦♦❧ ❛❞❛♣t❛t✐♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❤♦✉s❡❤♦❧❞ ✐♥❝♦♠❡✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ ❡①❛♠✐♥❛t✐♦♥s ❝♦♥✲ tr✐❜✉t❡❞ t♦ t❤❡ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❛♥ts ♦❢ ❤❛♣♣✐♥❡ss r❡s❡❛r❝❤ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✉s❡❞...
Gender gap index and happiness
Procházková, Vendula ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Votápková, Jana (referee)
This bachelor thesis investigates the relationship between the level of gender inequality given by The Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) and women's happiness. Using the cross-sectional data from The World Values Survey from 22 different countries, the main goal was to explore the possible existence of a positive relationship between the GGGI index (which reflects the rate of gender differences in particular country where lower values represent higher rate of gender inequality) and relative happiness of women in comparison with happiness of men. The work introduces not only the variables that are considered to be the main determinants of happiness according to the current studies, but also specific indexes related to the issue of gender inequality. All in all, the work is comprised of seven models working with the whole dataset of 22 countries, six models working with the data divided by gender and two different models created for each of four groups into which the countries were divided based on their rate of GGGI index. These models estimate the effect of GGGI index and its four components on happiness of individuals, on relative happiness of women and also the difference between women's and men's happiness in groups with different average GGGI index. Considering the results from previously...
The impact of electric vehicles on the automobile industry
Pavelková, Adéla ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
The main aim of this bachelor thesis is to identify the current and future importance of the electric vehicles. Apart from global situation, it also investigates the development in China, Europe, Norway and the U.S. To see the future position of electric vehicles on the automotive market, trend analysis and Bass Diffusion Model were used. The results showed that in the year 2035, the share of sales of electric vehicles will slowly approach a threshold of 50% in all analysed regions. The exception is Norway where the market of electric vehicles is already developed. Next, the correlation analysis was applied to measure the relationship between the sales of electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. It was shown that the correlation is relatively strong with the same direction. The sales are influenced by similar factors. Furthermore, the correlation analysis was used to detect the relationship between the sales of electric vehicles and price of gasoline. The coefficient was positive. At the end, the regression analysis was applied to measure the cross elasticity of demand between electric and internal combustion engine vehicles. It was proved that these vehicles are substitutes. That means that the price of internal combustion engine vehicle can affect the sales of electric vehicles.

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