National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Migration and morphogenesis of neural crest cells in the context of craniofacial development of selected ray-finned fishes
Štundl, Jan ; Černý, Robert (advisor) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee) ; Machoň, Ondřej (referee)
Neural crest (NC) cells play a crucial role in vertebrate development and evolution. This cell population contributes to many new cell types such as chondrocytes and osteocytes of the head skeleton, neurons, pigment cells, cardiomyocytes, and many others. As such the neural crest is often considered as the fourth germ layer. This vertebrate-specific cell population emerges during formation of the neural tube. Whereas in the trunk region NC cells migrate as separate cells, cranial neural crest (CNC) cells extensively migrate in three discrete streams forming most of the head mesenchyme. In all vertebrates, CNC stereotypically follows the tripartite pattern of migration along the anteroposterior axis so that the most anterior (trigeminal) stream emerges first, followed by the hyoid and branchial CNC streams. In this work, I have studied representatives of all three lineages of non-teleost fishes (bichir, sturgeon, and gar) and also one species from the crown group of ray-finned fishes, the pike. The main question I addressed in my project was whether the CNC cells stereotypically follow a tripartite pattern of migration along the anteroposterior axis as is seen throughout vertebrates. Surprisingly, I found several alterations in the emergence of CNC cells and their migratory pattern in the studied...
Sprouty 2 in the early development with focus on the craniofacial area and development of limbs
Pasovská, Martina ; Hovořáková, Mária (advisor) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee)
Sprouty proteins are known as negative regulators of the pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways. FGFs are involved in patalal and tooth formation, osteoblasts proliferation, differentiation and bone formation. Especially FGFR3, one of the fibroblast receptors, affects chondrocytes in the growth plate and its gain-of-function mutation is responsible for chondrodysplastic syndromes. Sprouty2 (Spry) gene plays an important role in embryonic development, as in the development of limb, kidney, pulmonary branching and morfogenesis of teeth. Spry2 knock-out results in supernumerary tooth formation in diastema of mandible, abnormalities of skull shape or cleft palate. Sonic hedgehod gene (Shh) also plays an important role in the craniofacial development and in the development of limb bud. The aim of this master thesis was to describe the expression of Spry2 in the craniofacial area and in the developing limbs with focus on the early stages of embryogenesis. We focused also on the relationships between Spry2 and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expressions in the craniofacial area and in the limb buds. In situ hybridization was used to show the expression patterns of Spry2 and Shh genes. Immunohistochemistry was used for visualization of Spry2 and...
Eda gene in the development of teeth
Dalecká, Linda ; Hovořáková, Mária (advisor) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee)
Ectodysplasin A (EDA) is a transmembrane protein of the TNF family, which plays an important role in the development of ectodermal derivates, such as teeth, hair or glands. Mutation in Eda gene causes the Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) in humans. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) as a downstream of Eda signalling pathway is an important signalling molecule involved in the initiation of tooth development. In frame of the present study, we aimed to evaluate the involvement of Eda gene during the development of mice teeth and its relation to Shh signalling, since Shh is an important marker of the normal tooth development. We focused on Shh expression in Eda mutant mice teeth with spontaneous mutation in Eda gene, since these mice represent a natural model for X-linked HED. First, we compared the Shh expression pattern during the tooth development in Eda mutant mice with CD1 control using the dissociation of dental epithelia and fluorescent microscopy. Consequently, we focused on the cell line expressing Shh observation using Cre-loxP system. We also visualized SHH expression in Eda mutants using imunohistochemistry and qantified SHH protein in the embryonic jaws using western blot. According to our results, the development of teeth in Eda mutants seems to be approximately one day delayed compared to...
Effect of inhaled metal oxide nanoparticles on organs of exposed mice
Mikuška, Pavel ; Večeřa, Zbyněk ; Dočekal, Bohumil ; Čapka, Lukáš ; Křůmal, Kamil ; Coufalík, Pavel ; Moravec, Pavel ; Buchtová, Marcela ; Míšek, Ivan ; Vrlíková, Lucie ; Smutná, Tereza ; Dumková, J. ; Hampl, A. ; Fictum, P.
Adult mice were continuously exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles for different time intervals. At the end of experiment, mice organs (lung, brain, kidney, liver and spleen) were collected for chemical, biochemical, histological and electron microscopical analyses.
The role of rudimentary structures in odontogenesis.
Lochovská, Kateřina ; Hovořáková, Mária (advisor) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee) ; Štembírek, Jan (referee)
In vivo organogenesis is based on the temporal-spatial developmental processes that depend on cell behaviour, for example on their growth, migration, differentiation and intercellular interactions. Such behaviour is regulated by appropriate transient expression of various signalling molecules. Despite the significant advances in therapeutic strategies, the secret of the development of the biological replacement of a damaged or missing tooth has not yet been revealed. In this context, animal models provide a powerful tool for studying tooth normogenesis and pathogenesis in both basic and applied research. Early development of the tooth shares similar morphological and molecular features with other ectodermal organs. At the same time, these features are largely preserved also between species, which is advantageous for the use of model organisms. The dental formula of both: the human and the mouse are reduced against a common ancestor, but both groups of organisms evince simple as well as multicusped teeth. In both, structures called rudimentary were found. These structures are suppressed during ontogenetic development and generally they are not attributed to essential functions. That is why we aimed to study dental rudiments in detail and reveal their function in odontogenesis. This work presents new...
Ontogeny, evolution & homology of cement glands and attachment organs in lower vertebrates
Minařík, Martin ; Černý, Robert (advisor) ; Ráb, Petr (referee) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee)
Aquatic larvae of many vertebrate lineages develop specialized, cranially located cement or attachment glands which allow them to remain attached to a substrate by means of polysaccharide secretion. The larvae can thus remain still and safe in well-oxygenated water out of reach of any predators until the digestive and locomotory apparatus fully develops. Xenopus cement gland is the most thoroughly studied example of this type of glands, since it was used as a model for the anteriormost patterning of the developing head. Based on shared expression patterns of key transcription factors and a similar ectodermal origin it has been repeatedly suggested that Xenopus cement gland is homologous to adhesive organs of teleosts and adhesive papillae of ascidians. The lack of comprehensive knowledge on this type of glands in other lineages however rendered any considerations of homology among such a distant lineages rather inconclusive. In the present work I have focused on a detailed study of the cement glands and other corresponding structures in three representatives of basal actinopterygian lineages: Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), and tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus). Using a combination of in vivo fate-mapping approaches with a Micro-CT imaging of cranial endoderm...
The signs of odontogenesis externally to the prospective functional dentition in the experimental model
Fábik, Jaroslav ; Hovořáková, Mária (advisor) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee)
6 Abstract The development of the mouse tooth primordium is an important model for studying odontogenesis, as well as general organogenesis. The development of the mouse lower incisor is of remarkable interest. The epithelial anlage of the mouse lower incisor is interconnected with the vestibular anlage via the epithelial bridges. According to some authors, the epithelial bridges represent an area, where the transient rudimentary incisor germ appears. From a morphological point of view, the first sign of ongoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during early odontogenesis is the thickening of oral epithelium. From a molecular point of view, it is the expression of the Shh, Eda, Edar, Pitx2, Bmp2, Bmp4 and Dlx2 genes. Except for the transcription domain, representing the proper signalling centre of a developing prospective incisor, a transient transcription domain, localized anteriorly and superficially, appears in the odontogenic zone of the epithelium during early development. The anterior transcription domain originates in the area of epithelial bridges, and according to some authors, from an evolutionary point of view, it corresponds with the signalling centre of the rudimentary incisor germ. The aim of this diploma thesis was to compare the temporospatial dynamics of SHH and EDA protein expression in...
Role of planar cell polarity pathway in ameloblastoma with focus on frizzled 6
Putnová, Barbora ; Putnová, Iveta ; Hrubá, Eva ; Dosedělová, Hana ; Štembírek, Jan ; Daněk, Z. ; Buchtová, Marcela
Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumour in the oral cavity. Its progression is usually slow and the surface is covered by an oral mucosa with physiologic appearance. These tumours do not cause any pain to the patient and therefore it is difficult to diagnose them on time and the first signs are often missed by clinician leading to late diagnosis.
Mechanism of complex tooth shape development in reptiles
Landová, Marie ; Zahradníček, Oldřich ; Dosedělová, Hana ; Kavková, M. ; Zikmund, T. ; Buchtová, Marcela
Tooth shape formation in mammals is well known proces thanks to the broad studies on the mouse molars. The main role in regulation of this proces plays the enamel knot. Enamel knots are formed by cluster of cells, which serves as a source of numerous signalling molecules such as SHH or members of WNT, BMP and FGF families. Almost all our knowledge about teeth came from study on the mouse model. For better understanding of odontogenesis, it is however necessary to compare developmental processes to another species. One of the most heterogenic group of dentition type and shape are reptiles. How the shape of their teeth completed is still unknown. Aim of our study is therefore to uncover developmental processes involved in cusp formation in non-mammalian species with focus on reptiles. As model species for this study, we selected chameleons where multicuspis teeth develop in the caudal area of the jaw.
The effect of WNT5A and WNT7A on cartilage formation and anterior-posterior patterning of the limb
Killinger, Michael ; Buchtová, Marcela
Growth and patterning of the vertebrate limb is controlled by signals produced in the appical ectodermal ridge (AER) and by the zone of polarizing aktivity (ZPA). limb development requires tight interactions between these signalling centers to keep asymmetrical arrangement of all skeletal elements and their growth.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 19 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
4 BUCHTOVÁ, Martina
4 Buchtová, Martina
6 Buchtová, Michaela
1 Buchtová, Miloslava
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