National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
"Sinking Islands" and the United Nations Security Council
Bruner, Tomáš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bílková, Veronika (referee) ; Karlas, Jan (referee)
Certain Small Island Developing States (hereinafter the "SIDS") such as Kiribati or Tuvalu are often incorrectly called "sinking islands" because their highest points are located just a few meters above the sea level. Sea level rise may turn their territories to uninhabitable land gradually disappearing beneath the tide. Worsening of the environmental conditions causes internal displacement, migration and other problems. SIDS repeatedly brought their plight to the United Nations Security Council (the "UNSC") during its meetings in 2007, 2011, 2015, 2018 and 2019. They demanded that the UNSC should deal with their situation as a potential security issue and safeguard more equal distribution of environmental security risks and costs. During the UNSC negotiations, various states attempted to interpret and re-interpreted the UNSC mandate in order to suit their interests. The representatives of SIDS suggested that the UNSC should be a body based on the principles of distributive justice decision-making and thus safeguard fairer sharing of threats and burdens, including those of environmental character. The rapidly developing states strongly opposed; they implicitly claimed that the UNSC should be based rather on the principles of commutative justice, i.e. decide in strictly given situations of violations of...
MINUSMA and the United Nation's Turn to Counter-terrorism and Counter-insurgency
van Oppen Ardanaz, Gabriel ; Bureš, Oldřich (advisor) ; Bruner, Tomáš (referee)
This Master's thesis will focus on the newest trends in the field of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations that are moving the organization to unknown territory by deploying in theatres where missions are faced with asymmetric threats. In this regard, the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), constituted as a groundbreaking and innovative peacekeeping operation, is spearheading a realignment in peacekeeping that can potentially shape future operations to come, as mandates increasingly reflect roles in areas such as counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism. The core objective of this study will be to analyze why MINUSMA is being forced to go green while studying how it is doing so, reflecting on past experiences from other operations such as the International Stabilization Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan and the Multi-National Force in Iraq (MNF-I), that have guided changes in MINUSMA's doctrines and capabilities. Gabriel van Oppen Ardanaz
"Sinking Islands" and the United Nations Security Council
Bruner, Tomáš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Bílková, Veronika (referee) ; Karlas, Jan (referee)
Certain Small Island Developing States (hereinafter the "SIDS") such as Kiribati or Tuvalu are often incorrectly called "sinking islands" because their highest points are located just a few meters above the sea level. Sea level rise may turn their territories to uninhabitable land gradually disappearing beneath the tide. Worsening of the environmental conditions causes internal displacement, migration and other problems. SIDS repeatedly brought their plight to the United Nations Security Council (the "UNSC") during its meetings in 2007, 2011, 2015, 2018 and 2019. They demanded that the UNSC should deal with their situation as a potential security issue and safeguard more equal distribution of environmental security risks and costs. During the UNSC negotiations, various states attempted to interpret and re-interpreted the UNSC mandate in order to suit their interests. The representatives of SIDS suggested that the UNSC should be a body based on the principles of distributive justice decision-making and thus safeguard fairer sharing of threats and burdens, including those of environmental character. The rapidly developing states strongly opposed; they implicitly claimed that the UNSC should be based rather on the principles of commutative justice, i.e. decide in strictly given situations of violations of...
Development aid and the need for exit strategies: Case of the Czech Republic and Serbia
Leškovská, Ludmila ; Werkman, Kateřina (advisor) ; Bruner, Tomáš (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of exit strategies within the development studies and the development community. The exit of financial aid by donors from developing countries have large effects on the recipients. Modern donors are facing the challenge of how to effectively exit a partner country without affecting the sustainability of their intervention, their relationship with the partner and the economic and social impact on the beneficiaries. For this purpose, modern donors establish exit strategies to guide their processes. Czech Republic as a new modern donor is aiming to increase its effectivity of development cooperation. However, when exiting partner countries such as Serbia, it does not follow an exit strategy. This thesis tries to analyse how the process of exit of the Czech Republic can be used to argue for the need of exit strategies, and what lessons can be learned from past exits.
China's Maritime Lawfare
Straatsma, Wietse ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Bruner, Tomáš (referee)
Bibliographic note STRAATSMA, Wietse. China's Maritime Lawfare in the South China Sea. Prague, 2018. 83 pages. Master's thesis (Mgr.) Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Political Studies. Department of Security Studies. Supervisor PhDr. Vít Střítecký, M.Phil., Ph.D. Abstract The primary aim of this thesis is to examine if and how the People's Republic of China uses legal warfare to strengthen its maritime power in the South China Sea. To examine this, Dunlap's interpretation of lawfare has been combined with a lawfare typology from Kittrie to create a framework from which China's behavior has been examined. The paper posits that China's behavior in and related to the South China Sea meets the criteria of lawfare. China utilizes both instrumental lawfare and compliance-leverage disparity lawfare to justify its legal claims on the South China Sea's maritime sphere and the landforms that lie within it. This lawfare combined with enforcement has led to China gaining substantial maritime power. The islands China occupies and their militarization have granted it marine resources, naval power, and bases to project power from. The thesis contributes to the literature on China's behavior in the South China Sea by providing a lens through which to view its actions. Moreover, it contributes...
Attribution of Conduct to a State according to Public International Law
Bruner, Tomáš ; Ondřej, Jan (referee)
The thesis firstly describes how the concept of attribution of private conduct to a state changed during the history. Original ancient conception of collective responsibility was absolute. One could attribute to a State or ancient community any unlawful act of its members. The damaged country or community could choose whether to demand and accept reparation or resort to use of force. This conception changed in the late middle ages and modern times. The responsibility of state was made more subjective. The international relations were perceived as inter-personal relations among the sovereigns. Unlawful conduct of private persons was not attributed to those sovereigns. This subjective conception of responsibility prevailed; it was based on concept of fault of the sovereign, either in form of action or omission or negligence. Later, the attribution of conduct of the sovereign to a State widened and included also the attribution of conduct of state organs. Since the 19th century the responsibility has been gaining more objective character in certain areas of international law. The concept of diplomatic protection allowed attribution of a failure to guarantee certain standard and of a failure to protect the interests of foreigners on the territory of particular state. Another concept of due diligence prescribed...
TechPower to the People: States' Monopoly Over Security and Surveillance in Turmoil
Bogunovic, Marko ; Bruner, Tomáš (advisor) ; Střítecký, Vít (referee)
Emerging technological trends have opened the possibilities for information manipulation across multiple platforms resulting in a power shift from the state to its citizens. This study takes on three cases as exemplars which will demonstrate how technology fabricates power in liberal states, causing a power dynamics shift. Each of the case studies will illustrate how technological vigilantism in one form or another allows for the citizen emancipation. The erosion of the relationship between the perpetrator and victim will also be discussed as private and public tracking devices becomes widespread. The initial findings suggest that the introduction of private software tracking has amplified the rate at which the state's monopoly over security and surveillance is eroding. Representing three key sections of a society - public, private, and civil - the cases analyzed show that each section is moving towards micromanagement meaning that citizens are taking the law into their own hands, despite high police competency. Find My iPhone, Twitter, Snapchat, Facebook, as well as other social networks and tracking software help support the rise of technology vigilantes. The state's monopoly over security and surveillance is in turmoil. Thus, this multi-case study will take on a discussion between two potential...
The EU's response to the discrimination of the Rohingya in Burma since 2011
Božinovová, Alexandra ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Bruner, Tomáš (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to find out the European Union's position on the discrimination of Rohingya in Burma since 2011. Over the years the country has initiated a number of reforms, transformed its political system and held first democratic elections. Since Burma has undergone considerable changes, the European Union first eased and then lifted almost all sanctions in 2013. The most pressing issue still facing Burma is the violations of human rights, especially in the case of Rohingya minority. Methodologically, the study is anchored by content textual analysis which was applied to a wide range of documents from which data was obtained for the analytical part of the study. The theoretical basis of the thesis is agenda-setting and salience. These theories were used to identify two hypotheses that examine the EU's position on the Rohingya crisis on the Unions agenda and its salience. Research has shown that the Parliament and the EEAS are paying the greatest attention. On the contrary, the Council and DEVCO spend less time on the issue. Despite all of the Union's efforts and the financial, human and material assistance provided, the situation has not improved and the Rohingya still face human rights abuses and are not full citizens of Burma.
Cultural property in armed conflicts: Typical motivations causing their destruction
Pelikánová, Eva ; Kučera, Tomáš (advisor) ; Bruner, Tomáš (referee)
In recent years protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflicts has become largely mentioned issue. Despite broad international legal codification of principles to prevent destruction of cultural property in the event of armed conflicts, destruction of cultural property obviously occurs. Within discussion on their protection, attention is not so paid to the values of cultural property representing for interested actors not merely in the event of armed conflicts. Attention is not much paid also to the motivations leading actors to destroy cultural property in the event of armed conflicts. The thesis is based on current state of knowledge both in academic or international law and it focuses on exploring motivations leading actors to destroy cultural property in the event of armed conflicts. To answer the research question: "What motivators are leading actors to actively destroy cultural monuments in armed conflicts?" is proceeded from analysis of literature that expounds the motivations for the destruction of cultural property in the event of armed conflicts. These motivations will be understood as theoretical explanations of destruction for the purposes of the work, and on the basis of five case studies, their validity will be checked. The subsequent synthesis of the conclusions of...

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