National Repository of Grey Literature 15 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Magnetic identification and characterization of Andosols in the Czech Republic
Rainer, Sabina ; Grison, Hana (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee)
The aim of the thesis is the identification and characterization of soils with andic properties using the magnetic methods. Investigated soil is located in the Velký Roudný in the Nízký Jeseník mountain. This is the only known area with Andosols on the territory of the Czech Republic. Magnetic measurements will be performed both in the field and in the laboratory, and will be accomplished by geochemical analyses necessary for accurate pedological characterisation. Magnetic data will be interpreted in termagnetická susceptibilita of the geological and environmental conditions. The results will be compared with the properties of the Andosols from the French Massif Central.
Tree species influence on soil acidification: long-term trends and modeling
Oulehle, Filip ; Hruška, Jakub (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee) ; Šantrůčková, Hana (referee)
Forest ecosystems belong to the part of environment most affected by the anthropogenic acidification. The structure of Central European forests was historically converted mostly into the Norway spruce monocultures. Such a forests received elevated acidic deposition since 1950s, from which large parts of mountain forests were killed by air pollution in 1970s and 1980s. After reduction of acidic deposition the forest soils were significantly delayed in chemical recovery compared to stream chemistry (Alewell et al., 2000). In this thesis we focused on long-term changes in soil chemistry at highly polluted area of Ore Mts., with particular interest in the tree species influence on soil acidification. The presented results including measurements of biogeochemical cycles within forest ecosystem at the Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.]) stand in the period 1992-2005 and at the European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.]) stand between 2003-2005. The desorption of previously stored sulfur and the decrease of Ca deposition are the main factors controlling the recovery of soil solution at spruce stand. The reduction in Ca availability resulted in lower uptake by tree assimilatory tissues, measured as concentration in needles. The unexpected disappearing of nitrogen leaching from soil was undoubtedly the most...
Key factors in soil organic matter accumulation
Vindušková, Olga ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee) ; Šarapatka, Bořivoj (referee)
Soil organic matter (SOM) is highly important for soil quality and the global carbon cycle. SOM content is influenced by a complex interplay of many different factors such as time, climate, parent material, vegetation, and others. The effect of time is often studied using the chronosequence approach using a set of study sites differing in age but comparable in other soil-forming factors. The effect of other factors can be studied by comparing two or more chronosequences. An important assumption of these approaches is that the SOM quantification methods produce comparable results both among sites of each sequence and among different sequences. In this thesis, I explored the key factors in SOM accumulation and dealt with SOM quantification methods. I studied SOM accumulation in two model situations - in post-mining sites after open-cast coal and oil shale mining and in landslides in the Western Carpathians. The results of this thesis are summarized in one book chapter accepted for publication and four papers, out of which three have been published and one is prepared for publication in an international journal with impact factor. The key factor affecting the rate of SOM accumulation after a major disturbance is time. The accumulation rates found in the first 40 to 100 years in both post-mining sites...
Soil organic matter dynamics at reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites
Bartuška, Martin ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee) ; Vopravil, Jan (referee)
Soil organic matter dynamics at reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites The subject of this thesis is to explore soil organic matter sequestration in post-mining soils and its relation to other ecosystem properties. The results of this study are summarized in four manuscripts, which have either been published or submitted for publication in international journals. On freshly mined-out overburden measurements of respiration revealed that the deep microflora community may substantially contribute to the microbial community in soil heaps, especially during early stages of succession and such influence early stages of pedogenesis. Microscopic observations also indicated massive breakdown of the sediment implying decomposition of fossil organic matter. For study of accumulation of soil organic matter, associated changes and interactions between chemical and biological soil properties over time, data from sets of plots of known different age(chronosequence) amended by data from repeated measurement after an extended period, allowed us to observe actual changes in soil chemistry, the carbon stock and soil properties. By this combination of these methods two separate studies were conducted at post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov in the Czech Republic (1999 and 2010). Soil pH decreased with site...
Geochemical and isotopic dating of floodplain sediments
Nováková, Tereza ; Mihaljevič, Martin (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee) ; Rohovec, Jan (referee)
River systems are the most widespread sedimentary environment in many European countries and can be hence used for study of historical development of contamination and for evaluation of the anthropogenic impact influence at the local or regional level. The study of river sediments, however, is complicated by changes of channel morphology and sedimentation dynamics and redeposition of old sediments, whether caused naturally (flood events) or by human impact (land use changes or building of water management structures), which leads to deposition of various sedimentary facies. Identification of sedimentary facies within floodplain fill is hence necessary - character (lithology) of deposited facies influences the spatial distribution of pollutants within floodplains. Suitable sampling sites strategy and chemostratigraphic correlations of depth profiles guarantee a correct interpretation of obtained data. However, in many countries, there are still no legislative tools or universal methodology for contamination assessment respecting natural variability of sedimentary records. Regional contamination during the last centuries and identification of local pollution sources of risk elements (Pb , Zn , Cu , ...) and magnetic particles have been studied in the sediments of the Morava River, in the area between...
The origin of podzols and distribution of elements induced by podzolization.
Pánik, Róbert ; Mihaljevič, Martin (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee)
Part I. The purpose of this work is to review publications and present a novel approach to the interpretation of available data in attempt to explain process of podzolization. First, we consider all major inputs that affect podzol formation from global to microscopic scale - climate, parent material, vegetation, mycorrhizal fungi, and fire regime in the podzol areas. Important role of fire-produced charcoal in the podzolization process due to its specific properties is also considered. Subsequently, physico-chemical transitions upon the downward progression of podzolization front (i.e., C to Bs, Bs to Bhs, and Bhs to E) are treated, in conjunction with the characterization of secondary phases that precipitate in the Bs horizon, as well as the demonstration of the major role of organic matter in the formation of podzols. Organic carriers exuded by plants and fungi are shown both to decrease mobility of certain elements (e. g., Ca, Al) by the formation of secondary solid phases, and also to increase mobility of otherwise unavailable elements (e.g., Fe) by their chelating abilities. Special emphasis is given to siderophores, group of organic substances that show high and specific affinity for Fe3+ chelation over a wide range of pH. Finally, spatial and temporal trends of podzolization and podzol...
Comparison of two methods of soil organic matter fractionantion
Fryčová, Kateřina ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee)
Comparison of two different soil organic matter fractionation methods Soil organic matter (SOM) significantly affects physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and plays also a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. In order to simulate SOM dynamics a number of mathematical models have been developed. These models divide SOM into several theoretical pools according to their stability. Unfortunately, lacking experimental procedure which could measure these pools directly, although for this purpose a wide range of fractionation procedures were developed, that are trying identified empirical fractions with theoretical model pools. An objective of this experiment was to reproduce two fractionation procedures on a set of twenty-seven laboratory-prepared samples: according to Six and according to Zimmermann and to compare their results. Also the relationship between respiration and the amount of carbon in different pools was compared. The most significant differences were found in active pools, where Six's method found twice as much carbon than Zimmermann's one. Finally response of both method results to various environmental parameters (mineral composition, litter type and soil mixing) was compared. According to the results of Zimmermann's method the amount of carbon in different pools was mainly...
Colluvial soils - their characteristics and spatial delineation at chosen study areas in the Czech republic
Zádorová, Tereza ; Šefrna, Luděk (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee) ; Sobocká, Jaroslava (referee)
Colluvial soils, formed in areas of increased accumulation of soil material, represent an important element in landscape and soil mosaic, whose development is still in progress. Their spatial distribution and profile thickess are considered to be important indicators of processes leading to significant landscape changes. Their importance also consists in very deep humus horizon which makes them a vast storage of organic carbon. Mapping of colluvial soils represents a substantial contribution in the update process of classic soil maps. The aim of the thesis is a complex analysis of the colluvial soil unit in terms of its relation to soil properties, terrain and geological predispositions and relevance in soil mapping. The study results are based mainly on detailed terrain survey, digital terrian model analysis and modern pedometric methods application. The research was proceeded in three study areas with significant pedological and geological differences and various predisposiotion for colluviation intensity and velocity and resulting character of colluvial profiles. Diverse character of the study areas was the main factor of the spatial distribution and properties of the colluvial soils. In Chernozem region, intensive erosion resulted in formation of colluvial soils characterized by thick humus...
Mercury speciation determined by thermo-desorption analysis at two sites contaminated by mining
Hojdová, Maria ; Navrátil, Tomáš (advisor) ; Borůvka, Luboš (referee) ; Hruška, Jakub (referee)
Historic mercury mining represents an envinrnmental threat due to high llg concentration in waste materia|. Mercur1'ores \\'ere mined for more than l50 years at t\ťo siles in the centr.a| ('zech Republic, hut thc extent of Hg contamination in the vicinity of former l-lg mining sites has not been yet inr'stigatď. The objectives of the study weÍe to eva|uate thc Hg sorrrces in mine wastes. assess the extent of Hg contamination in historical ntining area ancl to cstimate potential mohility of Hg in the mine waste and soils. The method of thermal tlesorption in combination tvith Í(.P-oES (TDA-lCP.oEs) has been app|ie<l to dctermine llg speciation irr solid samples. Mine rvaste matďa| was samp|e<| at two mining sites. .|edová Hora and Svatá, in ccntral Bohemia. Three soi| profi|es were col|cclď to caphlre likely high and low impact sites rvithin the mining area at Jedová l{ora' Database of thcmto-<|esorption cun,cs o[ I{g chemica| conrpottnds ant| rcference materia|s was crcated for the TDÁ ftrr comparativc purposes. Both mine wastes and soils collected near the llg nines were highly elcvated in total l-lg corcentrations (up to 120 pg g-r and l0 pg g-', respectively). Soils exhibited the highest tlg concentrations mostly in subsurface Ah soil horizons. Higher lJg concentrations in Ah horizons relative...
Hygienic safety of outdoor playgrounds with sandbox
Abertová, Jana ; Borůvka, Luboš (advisor) ; Anna, Anna (referee)
Playgrounds represent danger of a direct input of hazardous substances into children`s organism, that`s why they require a special attention. The diploma thesis deals with hygienic safety of outside playgrounds with sandpits in scope of valid legislation and medical risks, which might be caused by contamination. The aim of the thesis is to assess the level of microbiological, parasitical and chemical contamination and hygienic safety of sand in outside playgrounds with sandpits in Hradec Kralove. To check the contamination, samples of sand were taken in outside playgrounds with sandpits destined for children in Hradec Kralove. Safety parameters of taken samples were rated according to notice No. 238/2011 Coll., about setting of hygienic requirements for swimming pools, saunas and hygienic limits for sand in sandpits of outside playgrounds. The evaluation of samples was concentrated on microbiological, chemical and parasitical contamination of sandpits, which was analyzed by Medical Institute based in Usti nad Labem. The influence of position of playground within the town (city center vs. outskirts), time of collecting samples and age of each sandpit were judged. The sandpits in Hradec Kralove in the years 2014 and 2015 were microbially contaminated over established limits only in one case. Parasitical or chemical contamination was not found in any case. Next conclusion is that sandpits at end of season are contaminated by microorganisms about 18 % more often than at start of season and at the same time that sandpits in city center are contaminated about 14 % more frequently than in outskirts. New sandpits are often contaminated by thermotolerant coliform bacteria than old sandpits. From the point of view of chemical contamination, sandpits in city center are more contaminated by chemicals, however statistical difference is not significant. The discovered values of sand at start and end of season were misrepresented by addition of sand in sandpits in the course of main season. Sandpits in Hradec Kralove had a high level of hygienic safety, which is determined in law No 258/2000 Coll., about protection of public health.

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