National Repository of Grey Literature 24 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Structure and Function of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II
Šácha, Pavel ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee)
4 Závěr GCPII je důležitý protein, který hraje roli v mnoha fyziologických i patologických procesech. Proto bylo třeba získat větší množství enzymaticky aktivního proteinu pro jeho další biochemický výzkum. Heterologní expresí v hmyzích buňkách S2 bylo exprimováno a následně purifikováno dostatečné množství velmi čistého a aktivního enzymu. To umožnilo jeho biochemickou charakterizaci, krystalizaci a později vedlo i k vyřešení krystalové struktury. GCPII je aktivní v širokém rozmezí pH 6 - 8, s maximem kolem pH 7,5. Zjistili jsme, že kromě přirozeného substrátu Ac-Asp-Glu GCPII štěpí také acetylované dipeptidy Ac-Asp-Met, Ac-Glu-Met, Ac-Glu-Glu, Ac-Ala-Glu a Ac-Ala-Met. U těchto substrátů byly změřeny kinetické parametry štěpení. Nalezení dalších substrátů může vést k objevení dosud nepopsaných fyziologických rolí GCPII. Také byly porovnány hodnoty IC50 inhibitorů známých z literatury u námi připravené GCPII a GCPII izolované z potkaních mozků. IC50 bylo u všech méně specifických inhibitorů nižší u rekombinantní GCPII než u GCPII izolované z mozků. Rozdíly ve výsledcích vysvětlujeme vazbou méně specifických inhibitorů na jiné proteiny preparátů z mozku. Vůbec nepochybujeme o tom, že data získaná za použití čistého rekombinantního proteinu jsou přesnější než ta, ktará byla získána ze špatně definovaných...
Structure, activity and metabolism of human glutamate carboxypeptidase II
Mlčochová, Petra ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee)
CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES Recentry reported crystal sructures of GCpII provide stucturar insight into the organization of the substrate binding cavity and highlight residues implicated in substrate / inhibitor binding in the sI site of the enzyme. To comprement and extend the s[ucturar studies, we constructed a QMzMM model of GCPII in complex with its substrate, N-aceýt. aspartyl-glutamate, which enabled us to pÍedict additional anrino acid residues interacting with the bound subsrate. and used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the contribution of individual residues for substrate ,/ inhibitor binding and enzymatic activity of GCpII. we prepared and characterized 12 GcpJ' mutants targeting the amino acids in the vicinity of substrate./inhibitor binding pockets. The experimental results suggest that residues (especiaily Arg210) in the sť site are critical for substrate./inhibitor binding, whereas the residues forming the sl pocket niight be more important for the .fine-tuning, of GCptr substrate specificity and appear to be relevant for substrate turnover and may play a role in the enzyme's mechanism of action. Even though the QIVýMM calculations of the NAAG binding mode in the GCPII active site enabled us to predict the structure and enzyme-substrate interactions in the sl binding site, the complete...
Role of proteins associated with the Cannabinoid receptor 1 in endocannabinoid signaling
Vozárová, Denisa ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee)
To preserve homeostasis and proper function in every living organism, it is important for cells to communicate with each other and their environment. Cells are constantly processing a huge amount of extracellular stimuli through proteins called receptors. Receptors can transduce the signal from extracellular to intracellular compartments. G- protein coupled receptors are the biggest group, in which also belongs Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R). Endocannabinoid system regulates many biological processes such as learning, food intake, and movement. Obesity is a serious issue nowadays and in cases of claryfing its molecular-genetic basis, there was found Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1 (SGIP1). SGIP1 has a role in the regulation of energetic balance and its overexpression is leading to a development of obesity. SGIP1 was detected as an interaction partner of CB1R and it had been found that it is involved in internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Key proteins for initiation and early phase of CME are FCHO1/2, with which SGIP1 shares high sequential homology. However, effect of SGIP1 on internalization of activated CB1R is inhibitory unlike FCHO1/2,wheras detailed mechanism of its function remains unclear. The aim of this...
Role of proteins associated with the cannabinoid receptor 1 in endocannabinoid signaling
Vozárová, Denisa ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee)
To preserve homeostasis and proper function in every living organism, it is important for cells to communicate with each other and their environment. Cells are constantly processing a huge amount of extracellular stimuli through proteins called receptors. Receptors can transduce the signal from extracellular to intracellular compartments. G-protein coupled receptors are the biggest group, in which also belongs Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R). Endocannabinoid system regulates many biological processes such as learning, food intake, and movement. Obesity is a serious issue nowadays and in cases of searching for candidate molecules, there was found Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1 (SGIP1). SGIP1 has a role in the regulation of energetic balance and its overexpression is leading to a development of obesity. SGIP1 was detected as an interaction partner of CB1R and it had been found that it is involved in internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. SGIP1 is very homological with FCHO1/2 - important proteins which participate on early stages of endocytosis. Mechanism of inhibitory effect of SGIP1 on internalization remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of distinct domains of SGIP1 in context of endocytosis. Key...
The role of protein SGIP1 in regulation of Cannabinoid Receptor 1
Chlupisová, Lenka ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee)
Mutual cell communication in the human body ensures the proper functioning of the essential mechanisms necessary for the life of the individual and preserving the homeostasis of the whole organism. Such communication is established by various types of signal transmission from the recipient cell to the donor cell, depending on the location and type of communicating cells. One such type is signalization through receptor molecules found on the surface or within the cell receiving the signal. These receptors receive the signal molecule in the form of a ligand and bind it to themselves, while activating the receptor and then triggering the intracellular signaling pathways. The most widely represented receptors in the eukaryotic organism include G-protein-coupled receptors, which represent signaling ensured by activation of the intracellular G-protein complex, and one of the main mechanisms occurring in neuronal signaling and signal transmission in the form of a neurotransmitter. Regulation of the amount of receptors on the surface of the cell and transport of the signal molecule into the intracellular spaces of the cell is ensured by the mechanism of endocytosis, whereby internalization of the ligand- bound receptor in the cytoplasm occurs. One of the most researched mechanisms is clatharin-mediated...
Characterization of molecular components in cannabinoid signaling pathways.
Hájková, Alena ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Vyklický, Ladislav (referee) ; Maletínská, Lenka (referee)
The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptors superfamily, is a key player in endocannabinoid signalling. The CB1R is found presynaptically in neurones where it modulates synaptic plasticity. Precise description of the molecular mechanisms of synaptic neurotransmission is crucial for understanding of brain diseases and development of new therapeutic aproaches. Possible pharmacological targets of CB1R signalling include the treatment of various ailments such as energy imbalance disorders (anorexia, obesity), drug addiction, pain, insomnia, and some psychiatric conditions. This study reveals the "Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1" (SGIP1) as a novel interacting partner of the CB1R. The SGIP1 is an intracellular neuronal protein localized predominantly in axon terminals and is involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. The overexpression of SGIP1 imbalance energy homeostasis and leads to obesity. We show that SGIP1 affects CB1R signalling via ERK1/2 whereas G-protein signallization remains unaltered. The SGIP1 also hinders CB1R internalization from the cell surface and supports its interaction with β-arrestin2. Also, we demonstrated heterodimerization of the main splice variants of metabotropic glutamate...
Bone remodeling in rheumatic diseases: Bone loss in juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Brábníková Marešová, Kristýna ; Štěpán, Jan (advisor) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee) ; Hrnčíř, Zbyněk (referee)
Introduction: The inflammation plays the essential role in the bone loss in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Proinflammatory cytokines and also glucocorticoids (GCs) may activate bone resorption by osteoclasts. Simultaneously, bone formation can be attenuated, especially by inhibitors of proteins, which control the osteoblast differentiation. The aim was to verify the hypothesis that in patients with highly active JIA, reduction of bone formation via Wingless (Wnt) proteins inhibitors - Dickkopf 1 (Dkk-1) and sclerostin could be found. Except the densitometry measurements of bone and lean mass, we assessed markers of disease activity, bone metabolism and remodeling in young adult patients with JIA before and during 2 years of anti TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) treatment, which decreases disease activity. Results: In patients with JIA before antiTNFα treatment, bone mineral density (BMD, g/cmš) was significantly reduced compared to controls. Values of BMD and body composition in JIA significantly depended on disease duration and GCs treatment. Serum concentration of sclerostin was significantly elevated in JIA compared to values in healthy controls. Values of the other monitored markers did not differ between JIA and controls. In patients with JIA, Dkk-1 correlated positively with C-reactive...
Neuropharmacology of spatial navigation, cognitive coordination and flexibility tests in animal models
Prokopová, Iva ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Vyklický, Ladislav (referee) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee)
Spatial navigation, cognitive coordination and behavioral flexibility belong amongst cognitive functions, which play a role in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Behavioral tasks have proved to be useful paradigms to test these functions in pharmacological or genetic animal models. First aim was to determine a potential interaction between β-adrenergic and α1-adrenergic or D2-dopaminergic systems. Spatial navigation and coordination were impaired in both studies during co-aplication of subthreshold doses of drugs. Used substances belong to group of widely prescribed drugs, thus our results could be implicated in clinical practice. Another study examined an acute effect of MK-801 (animal model of schizophrenia) on behavioral flexibility in Carousel maze and the Morris water maze (MWM). Carousel maze showed higher sensitivity with impairments from 0.08 mg.kg-1 compared to 0.10 mg.kg- 1 in MWM. The final experiment aimed at testing the effect of reduced expression of Nogo-A protein on spatial navigation and behavioral flexibility of rats. A battery of tests in the Carousel maze revealed impairment in cognitive functions, MWM showed unaffected working memory of rats. Our results support the hypothesis linking Nogo-A knock-down rats with neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive disorders. Key words:...
Characterization of the effect of pregnanolone sulfate and its derivatives on NMDA receptors.
Švehla, Pavel ; Vyklický, Ladislav (advisor) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a subtype of receptors for major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the central nervous system. Their activity is regulated by variety of allosteric modulators, including endogenous neurosteroids and their synthetic analogues. NMDAreceptor dysfunction is implicated in various forms of neurodegeneration and inhibitory neurosteroids have unique therapeutic potential to act as neuroprotective agens. The aim of this work is to investigate relationship between structure and function of neurosteroids with modifications in the D-ring region, using whole-cell patch clamp recording at recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors. In this work, we characterised inhibition effect of 19 neurosteroid analogues on NMDA receptor activity and found several of them to be potent NMDA receptor inhibitors. According to our results, there is a linear relationship of IC50 and lipophilicity of a neurosteroid compound, suggesting the plasma membrane plays an important role in neurosteroid access to NMDA receptor. Indeed, using capacitance recording configuration in combination with amphipathic molecule gamma-cyclodextrin, we were able to separate the kinetic of neurosteroid membrane binding from receptor binding. Moreover, these experiments showed that neurosteroid accumulation in the...
Muscarinic acetylcholine transmission and Alzheimer's disease
Janíčková, Helena ; Doležal, Vladimír (advisor) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee)
Impairment of the cholinergic neurotransmission system is regularly detected in animal models of Alzheimer's disease as well as in human patients suffering from this serious disease. Moreover, there is increasing amount of evidence suggesting that activation of individual mAChR subtypes specifically influences the cleavage of APP, the precursor for β-amyloid. APP can be processed in an amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic pathway and a relative abundance of these patways contributes to establishing the final concentration of neurotoxic β-amyloid in the brain. In this work, I have studied the acute and chronic effects of A β1-42 on binding and functional characteristics of mAChR. I have demonstrated that Aβ1-42 present in cell culture expressing the individual subtypes of mAChR negatively and specifically influences the function of the M1 mAChR subtype. I have also detected a decline in muscarinic receptor-mediated signal transduction in brain tissue of young adult APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a commonly used animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Demonstration of the impairment of muscarinic transmissin in transgenic mice by soluble β-amyloid that occurs earlier than amyloid pathology and behavioral deficit, and its imitation by soluble Aβ1-42 in vitro lend strong support to the notion of the early involvement...

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