National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Sexual dimorphism and skull morphology with regard to the social structure of the Great Moravian burial area Mikulčice
Rieger, Vojtěch ; Bejdová, Šárka (advisor) ; Bigoni, Lucie (referee)
1 Abstract This diploma thesis deals with the influence of gender and socio-economic affinity on skull morphology in the population of Slavs from early medieval settlement Mikulčice. Mikulčice was the power center of Great Moravia with a hierarchically structured society. For a better understanding of historical relationships in the society at the time, it is important to identify individuals and classify them in the appropriate social group. There have been previously identified morphological differences of the skull between the inhabitants buried in the Mikulčice castle and those buried in the sub-castle area. These differences were related to the different living conditions based on the social status of the individuals buried in the castle and sub-castle area. This thesis studies whether there is a similar link between the individual's socio-economic affinity and the wealth of items found in graves. Furthermore, the influence of locality and burial equipment on skull morphology is compared with each other. Within the groups defined in this way, sexual dimorphism is also described, whose degree of manifestation, among other things, is related to the suitability of the external environment and is thus a convenient anthropological marker. A total of 89 individuals (40 women and 49 males) aged 20 to 60 years...
Sex classification using external and internal morphology of frontal bone: application in forensic science and bioarcheology
Čechová, Markéta ; Velemínská, Jana (advisor) ; Bigoni, Lucie (referee)
This master's work was focused on the assessment of sexual dimorphism of external and internal morphology of frontal bone. Sexual diagnosis based on external surface of frontal bones and volume and surface of frontal sinuses was carried out using geometric morphometrics methods. Our approach used anonimized CT scans of 103 skulls from recent Czech population, from which 3D models of frontal bones and frontal sinuses were created. At first the analysis was aimed at studying form and shape of external surface of frontal bone. Our methodology is based on the work of Musilová et al. (2016) that estimates sex using exocranial surface of the entire skull. We analyzed variability and tested differences in males and females frontal bones. The main target of this work was sex classification. The highest success rate acquired 86,41 % with the first 20 main components of form. The following part of this study was focused on sex estimation using the methodology developed by Bulut et al. (2016), which was applied in Turkish population. This method classified Czech males and females with accuracy 70,87 %. In order to complete sex determination based on the frontal bone we also used classification of the radius of the frontal bone curvature with success rate of 77,66 %. The attention was also paid to studying...
Neurocranial asymmetry from normal shape to pathology
Forinová, Michala ; Velemínská, Jana (advisor) ; Bigoni, Lucie (referee)
Neurocranial asymmetry from normal shape to pathology Abstract: The bachelor thesis deals with the most frequent asymmetry of human skull - deformational plagiocephaly. Deformational (positional) plagiocephaly is the deformity of the skull, which is casued by external forces on developing, little rigid, skull of infants. An increased incidence of this deformity was noticed after 1992, when American Academy of Pediatrics marked supine position as the most safe sleeping position for infants, which decreases risk of Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This thesis includes the context of this deformity such as the correct development of the skull, craniosynostosis or torticollis. Craniosynostosis, caused by premature fusion of suture, can lead to similiar resulting shape of the skull. To differentiate craniosynostosis from deformities caused by external forces is very important from the point of clinial view - craniosynostosis can lead to increasing of intracranial pressure and other complications. Expansion of deformational plagiocephaly can be connected in some cases with torticollis, which leads to asymmetrical posture of a head and following confirmation.
Bilateral Asymmetries of Lower Limb's Muscle Activity during Basic Movement of Cha-Cha-Cha dance
Vondrášek, David ; Sládek, Vladimír (advisor) ; Bigoni, Lucie (referee)
1 Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of bilateral asymmetry of lower limbs' muscle activity in the dance movement Cha-cha-cha and to determine the cause of bilateral asymmetries of lower limbs' muscle activity. Differences in muscle activity of contralateral lower limbs might be caused by the factor of bilaterally asymmetrical movement patterns, the factor of neural pathways or the factor of training. We hypotetize that comparing the direction of bilateral asymmetry in muscle activity between asymmetrical dance movement and its mirror alternative can determine the cause of bilateral asymmetry in muscle activity of lower limbs within the movement. We studied 14 volunteers (7 men, 7 women), all were actively dancing at competitive level. We tested the muscle activity of musculus vastus lateralis (VL), musculus biceps femoris (BF), musculus tibialis anterior (TA) a musculus gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) using surface electromyography. The dance movement Cha-cha-cha was bilaterally asymmetrical in the muscle activity of VL, TA and GL. Direction of lower limbs' muscle activity indicates, that TA, being a muscle responsible for foot movement, might be affected by the factor of neural pathways and brain laterality, while VL and GL might be more affected by the factor of training. Key...
Changes of the facial skeleton in Central Europe during the last 1200 years
Bejdová, Šárka ; Velemínský, Petr (advisor) ; Bigoni, Lucie (referee) ; Galeta, Patrik (referee)
The objective of the Dissertation was to describe, quantify and interpret to which degree the shape and size of the facial skeleton of people living in the territory of today's Czech Republic in the period from the Early Middle Ages to the present day, i.e. in the course of the approx. last 1200 years, have changed. In this time period, morphological differences between populations, changes in the sexual dimorphism, modularity and allometry of the facial skeleton were examined. The evaluation was based on CT-images of skulls from three historical populations, specifically from the Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages and the early modern period. The current population was represented by CT-images of living people. We studied the facial skeletons of a total of 329 individuals, of which 183 were men and 146 women. The CT- images were used as a base for the creation of virtual 3D surface models. The facial skeleton was divided into three morphological units, which were further examined. These were the skeleton of the upper face, lower jaw and palate. The statistical processing was carried out applying methods of geometric morphometrics allowing the separate studying of the shape and size variability of the examined units. When comparing the size and shape differences between studied populations it is...
Phenotype variability of the skeleton: asymmetry, sexual dimorphism and their changes in time
Bigoni, Lucie ; Velemínská, Jana (advisor) ; Sosna, Daniel (referee) ; Beňuš, Radoslav (referee)
This doctoral thesis is submitted in the form of science publications and conference presentations together with theoretical introduction. It presents several points of view on the variability evaluation in the skull (and postcranial skeleton), with accent on diachronic changes monitoring, asymmetry and sexual dimorphism. This study concentrates on analysis (using traditional and geometric morphometrics) of size and shape of the skull, limb bones and face in the samples originated in the region of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). The first one is a photographical documentation of the Upper Palaeolithic skulls from Předmostí near Přerov (age 25,000 - 27,000 years). The second material is represented by skulls and limb bones deriving from the Early Mediaeval settlement in Mikulčice (The Great Moravia, 9th - 10th century). The third sample originated in the 1930s in Prague, so called Pachner Collection. The last comparative sample presents radiographs of the head and 3D surface models of faces of the recent society. Study of skeletal asymmetry of populations (Bigoni et al., v recenzním řízení, 2005; Kujanová et al., 2008), its level and localization, enables us to compare behavioral patterns, living conditions, socioeconomic differences and variability within and between populations (Mikulčice vs....

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